COVER STORY

2-WHEELER ALLOY WHEEL MANUFACTURING FACILITY, MAHARASHTRA

Minda Group as a policy have always asked for truly functional, neat, clean, well-organized production facilities, compliance to Vaastu and safety as top priority. The plant must excel and achieve the best of green sustainability benchmarks and improve from the previous ones, all the decisions starts from these stand points.

studio LINEDESIGN architects have created an entirely different and eclectic identity for Minda Industries, 2-wheeler Alloy wheel manufacturing facility – The First Alloy wheel manufacturing plant in India designed & executed to bag the highest level of Green Building certification.

Facility Details
This plant is first of MINDA Group as it is a new venture they have recently entered into i.e. manufacturing of two wheeler alloys, thus it involved a lot of research and development to achieve the best building designs and specifications for this nature of industry.

The project was in MIDC SUPA Industrial Zone, 100 Kms off Pune on the Pune Ahmednagar highway. It is a new under development industrial pocket. The terrain provided many interesting challenges, the site had contours running up to 8m in gradient. Since the Vaastu principles were not conducive to the direction or the orientation, some amount of filling had to be done and was planned to do the same with locally available materials. The production facility is divided into four main blocks.

Production Facility: First one was the production facility where the basic raw material i.e. Aluminum comes in the form of Ingots, it is stored in the RM warehouse, melted, die casted, machined, finished, and prepared for further treatment.

PT Lines & Paint Shop: The second shop has PT lines and the paint shop. It has been separated out due to safety concerns and to keep the plant free from any eventualities and risks. Since paint shops are susceptible to fire and other potential risks by way of use of highly combustible materials & processes.

FG Store: The FG store has been separated out again to de-risk the challenges posed by way of a large plant.

Admin Block: The admin block has been separately planned with canteen and other facilities for the associates.

Since large spans were needed due to the Die casting machines and melting furnaces, the span required was quite large up to 32 meters and there was no other option and it was an obvious choice to go for steel for its versatility, large scale and large span of rings.

PEB is one of the first choices when it comes to sustainable and eco-friendly buildings. Steel is the preferred material for all prefab structures and pre-engineered Buildings use steel which is more than 70 per cent recyclable.

These buildings are cost effective, energy efficient and provide better quality environment as they are cooler in hot conditions due to the favorable roofing material, suitable insulation, and natural ventilation. The use of skylights and solar panels mounted on rooftops of industrial buildings will meet daylight and captive power requirements which will reduce their dependence on power supply from other sources and at the same time reduce emissions and gain carbon credits under clean development mechanism.

Effective usage of insulation material, louvers and other materials also help in making PEB one of the most preferred green buildings.

We as a firm practice and remains fully committed to the most sustainable ways of construction techniques to produce a whole-sum sustainable environment in the form of MINDA Industries Alloy Wheel manufacturing facility for the users that creates the sense of openness and free interactions. With the aesthetic qualities complemented by the versatility of the steel structure, MINDA Industries is a beautiful precision of architecture.

Gaurav Varmani
Principal Architect
studio LINEDESIGN Architects

Structural Specifics
The wall sheeting in the plant had started right from the bottom. It is just 400mm brick wall and then the wall sheeting is placed just above that, which gives a very clean look to the exterior and is faster to build.

VARIOUS softwares were used to develop the designs which included AutoCad, Revit, Staadpro and other proprietary structure design softwares for PEB design. The project spreads over 20 acres of hardscaped land and constructed around 2.7 million sq ft. of built up area.

Building Geometrics – PEB Structures
Production Building – 130m x 125m
Paint shop & Warehouse Building- 32m x 125m
Roof Slope – 1:20

With such sustainability measures, working with steel also gave the upper hand on creating large spaces without columns. The endeavor was to practice and create a sustainable architecture that remains sensitive to its surroundings and user experience.

Roofing
Another construction strategy that was implied was the use of High SRI material for the roof i.e. Precoated Galvalume sheets with bubble wrap thermal insulation. This led to the reduction of heat island effect inside the factory. The effort of putting the energy efficient lighting design under the efficient building envelope design and provision of renewable energy resulted in obtaining a substantial 46 per cent of savings on energy.

The salient features of this one-of-a-kind building included the provision of renewable energy. The Solar Panels were installed on the rooftop that contributed to more than 10 per cent of the total annual energy consumption of the factory. Another, milestone that was set by the team was the provision of an integrated rainwater harvesting system and Zero Liquid Discharge Treatment Plant on-site. This helped in treating 100 per cent of the wastewater generated and recycled the same for both process and horticulture requirements in the harsh hard terrains of Western Plateau’s of India.

Apart, from the sustainable provisions while constructing the factory, more than 35 per cent of the natural topography was preserved on site. Eco-friendly refrigerants were used while catering to the universal design approach in sync with latest Global guidelines on Green sustainable environments. LNG is used extensively for process requirements in the production facility to encourage the use of non-fossil fuels. The other non-process waste was managed efficiently by the waste management plant that included the use of 13 per cent of recycled material.

Timelines & Experience
The project was started and completed within a short span of 10 months from the date of groundbreaking. Except for a few challenges during the COVID pandemic it was on track and immediately once the lockdown opened, the project was commissioned as some of it was incomplete.

The overall experience from the project had been very satisfying and enriching. The design team learned new technologies and processes, since the Minda group was also entering in this business for first time lot of research and development went into the design evolution and specially designed certain innovative systems to extract out the fumes from the die casting machines to deliver maximum comfort to the operators inside the plant.

Since the process involves die casting and melting furnaces the temperature rises to up to 60 degree plus in the workspace environment, so it was very important to consider worker comfort and also ensure that the production shop remains dust free. Another important consideration is to ensure Zero water leakages, since aluminum molten metal in furnaces is susceptible to flash blasts in case of water meeting the molten metal.

The whole project was efficiently micro-coordinated by MINDA Projects Limited, an EPC company based out of Manesar Gurgaon. MPL has undertaken various plants for Japanese companies pan India over the last decade and they are also currently working with distinguished customers such as Maruti Suzuki & Hero Cycles in the Automobile sector. We would like to especially thank Mr. Ajit Kumar, the project head from Minda Projects Limited for leading in an exceptionally strong way and giving the focus, direction, and motivation to the entire team to achieve the project goals.

Fact File
Client: Minda Industries Limited
Architects: Studio LINEDESIGN Architects
EPC & PMC Company: Minda Projects Limited
Structural Consultants: AKB Consultants
Steel Tonnage : 1350 MT

International CHRISTIAN WORSHIP Centre

The ambitious task was to build one of the most iconic interdenominational Worship Centre of the world with a seating capacity of 10,000 people (now reduced to 8,500 people). Kalayojan was appointed as the architects who were highly privileged to have been offered and be associated with the design of this Worship Centre.

The worship centre would not only accommodate approximately 8500 believers at a time but would be looked upon as one of the biggest and most beautiful worship centres of the Christian faith worldwide. The design team although not a Christian by birth himself, is personally exposed to some of the largest Worship Centre of the world having personally visited them namely the Notre Dame at Paris, St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican city, The Duomo, Milan, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul and the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona.

The designer was not only well versed with Christian faith but was also exposed to historical, traditional, modern, post-modern, and contemporary architecture world over with aspirations of his practice developing the styles using state-of-the art technologies which should remain valid for next couple of centuries. The Architect has also visited the city and spent considerable time there and is generally aware about the living conditions, terrain, geological and climatic aspects of the city including the site location.

Design and Form
The design was contemporary in outlook and sleek form was well balanced in proportions. The form in elevation indicates forward movement which indicates positive change or progress and prosperity for the living world.

The plan of the Worship Centre is evolved from traditional church planning i.e. the Cross with a central main isle along its length leading on the other end to the altar with an axial view. The breadth of the church widens gradually and is the widest at notional two arms of the cross.

Prior to the entrance into the Worship Centre proper a large congregation space with a hood like large roof overhead is planned with a gesture of warm welcome and embrace. The main axes with position of altar, seating and entrance maintained as per the usual church design.

The hierarchy in elevation of typical church has altar at maximum height with seating area lower and entrance the lowest. This enables the awestruck feeling once you enter and experience the space. The elevation profile of ICWC symbolises the hierarchy of traditional church within the curved profile. The wave is highest at the altar side, raising slightly at the middle seating area and ending in a grand cantilever canopy welcoming all at the entrance.

The experience from grand entry to the seating area unfolds as a mystery in focus of cross bathed with natural light at the altar providing a very pious and pure religious environment.

By the time our country awakened to the need of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’, the firm, Kalayojan had already exported this world-class Architectural design along with all indigenously appointed expert consultants – all from India… and that too for a project of such an unprecedented scale and complexity! It is a matter of great pride for us. Indian developers and construction industry should now tend to avail such talents and experience from within the country rather than outside.

Architect Sanjay Porwal,
Principal Architect, Kalayojan Architects

Virtual Cross
The plan is an overall cross that is enveloped in a slender curvilinear makeover. The main access routes across the church form a cross in plan and is enchantingly held up by a reflecting pool that is cross in plan as well.

Internal Ambience
The internal environment will have ample of dynamism not only in terms of space, but which provides experience of positively influence on the psyche of its visitors and taking them to an elevated mood. The light-tower over and at the back of the altar provides the divine spiritual light. The entire Worship Centre will be filled up with passive soothing natural light with stained glazing’s of different hues.

Foreground and Backdrop
The structure will have an imposing foreground as well as backdrop to let visitors admire the beauty and magnitude of the building not only from far away but will be revealed in mysterious proportions as they move towards the building along its axes.
The foreground will have covered pathways and ramps for access of visitors up to the main altar from both outside as well as inside.

Approach to The Site
The site of the vision is captured by tall light tower over altar. In that sense the worshippers will always looking up high towards the divine, uplifting our spirit in his faith. The light tower also becomes the focal point directing us towards the altar. This gives the journey a direction (physical & spiritual).
The devotes enter the site at 3 drop points namely East gate, North gate & West gate. There is sufficient parking provided for 2-wheelers, 4 wheelers and heavy vehicles on the southern side of the site.

A separate VIP parking (for priests and VIPs) is provided below podium with direct access to the VIP area in the worship centre. A defined pedestrian journey is designed with security points throughout. A special provision is made for the physically challenged to find their journey comfortable.

This project will have a Bilbao effect in the city similar to the Guggenheim museum had on city of Bilbao, Spain and it will put Indian Architects at the forefront of Design engineering globally.

Ar. Pathik Joshi
Executive Director, Kalayojan Architects

Podium
The worship centre sits on podium elevated at 1.2 meters from the axis road on the north side abutting the site. Since the site is sloping towards south the podium is raised approximately to 4m on the south side of the site.

Canopy
As one arrives at the entrance of the worship centre a massive canopy welcomes with open arms into the worship centre. The city experiences drizzle from time to time so the canopy also acts like an umbrella sheltering the visitors from weather conditions. The visibility of the chancel tower is maintained through slits provided in the canopy. There is always a visual connection with the sky through these slits. The porch at canopy is raised 0.45meter from the podium level and act as a pre-function area for any occasion at the worship center.

Entry Point
The axis has been maintained to have a visual connection with the altar and. At the entrance, the glimpses of the altar can be seen which draws curiosity towards it.

Concourse
The 20M wide ramp with a gentle rising climb (mystery unfolds along) is the shift from the outside earthly world towards this heavenly almost magical space. The concourse is along east west axis, so it separates the north side and south side of the worship centre.

Waiting, Information & Admin
The north & south side greets with waiting area after entering the structure. This becomes a pause from the journey from exterior to interior. At the podium level there is an information centre adjacent to the waiting area on both sides along with a multipurpose room which can be an A.V. room or conference room as required.

Church & Chapel
Further down along the rising ramp is a chapel and church provided on each side. The two churches have a capacity of 300 to 400 each and the two chapels have a capacity of 100 to 150 people. These spaces are especially available for small prayer services or occasions for a smaller group or families.

Atrium
The atrium is a 50 M high open space where the concourse opens and feeling closer to the altar as the visual connection from the altar is very strong. This is a point where one is left awestruck and ethereal feeling sinks in. As the mystery unfolds there is another pause in the journey closer to the almighty. This is also a place where the flow of crowd disperses to the north, south and central axis. The central axial arched doorway takes us into the auditorium.

While the North & South arched doorways take us to the pass away with three entry into the auditorium on each side.

This passage also has the vertical and public spaces circulation on both sides and sanitary facilities at each level. We are always visually connected to the altar through the stained-glass arcade enclosing the auditorium.

Auditorium
The auditorium has two levels. The lower level accommodates approximately 5410 people and the gallery level accommodates approximately 3090 people.

The total capacity of both levels is approximately 8500 people seated. The fluid structure of the shell and the bright light at the altar grabs our vision and hypnotises us to focus on the altar. The contrast of the soothing filtered light from the slits provided in the shell to this very bright light falling on Christ from the light tower has a very divine out of world experience for the devotee.

The ambience in the auditorium is very soothing. The ceiling is designed to create a feeling of being in clouds or feathers being almost elevated in the magical space.

It is enclosed on both sides by an arcade of stain glass which also adds colour to this divine space. There are three entry/exit points in the arcade at three different levels of the auditorium.

Chancel / Altar & Choir Space
The chancel is raised 1.6 M from podium level. The light tower over the altar provides a divine spiritual light. A gold leaf background is visualised as the background of altar adding to the grandeur of the space. The floor is assumed to be royal red representing the blood of Christ and divine warmth he brings to us.

Priest & VIP Area
On both north & south side of altar at chancel level are practice rooms for choir and the performance area is elevated 4 M above the chancel level.

The senior priest and priests’ rooms are placed on the south side near chancel while the VVIP’s and VIP’s room is on the north side. These are at podium level and have a private/special entry from ground level.

There is also provision for vehicular access under the podium level for this area with some car parking. This area is demarcated and not accessible to public for the sake of convenience and safety. On the first level above also available for storage for choir instruments. Organ plays a crucial role in church acoustics.

Museum
The museum runs along the south passageway level throughout the side wings of the structure. It spreads through different levels having height varying from 4 to 8M. Museum displays the history and development of Christianity and the church and showcases the development of the International Worship Centre.

The structure being complicated and architecturally critical, large CHS steel members, we worked out matching architecturally matching and structurally stable connections which suggested possible simple connections easy for fabrication work. INSTEEL ENGINEERS were able to complete the structure successfully by using Tekla software for modeling and detailing. The Tekla Structures was a potent tool behind the success of this majestic structure, due to its powerful 3D modeling capabilities that gave us, a large scope to explore and develop routines, do modelling and detailing accurately in a relatively shorter time with highest degree of precision..

RAJU JAGTAP
Managing Director, INSTEEL Engineers Pvt Ltd

Gallery
The gallery runs along the north passageway in the north wing of the structure. Its spaces are like museum at different levels with different heights. The Art Gallery showcases different local and international art forms related to Christianity. This will be dynamically used space with art, sculpture, and craft exhibitions.

Passages & Vertical Connectivity
The ramp on the central axis is the main entry passage into the worship centre. It splits into north and south arcades at the atrium which run along the Worship Centre main hall. Besides, these main passages there are branches leading to fire exit through church and chapel.

Similar branching lead to the toilet blocks and the fire exits at various points along north and south passage. A total of 12 fire exits are provided 20m to 30m away from each other around the total circumference of the worship centre.

There is a vertical connectivity in form of staircase and lift at every 20m to 30m along the main axis and north and south passages. A special connectivity from ground level below podium is provided for the priest and VIP area.

Sanitary and Other Facilities
The toilet blocks are placed in the side wings of the structure on the north and south.

They have placed along the passageway on both sides at three levels parallel to the entry points to the auditorium which are along the podium level and balcony level, while taking care of the Physically challenged accessibility.

A total of 10 toilet blocks are available for public around the worship centre at podium and balcony level, with separate toilet’s for VIP’s and Priest’s and administration.

There are two cry rooms provided on the north and south sides. There are facilities like first aid, drinking water fountains and snack kiosks are made available appropriately at each level.

Skin & Architecture Design Consideration
A non-linear 3D finite element analysis for an integrated approach towards structure and envelope is essential to a project like this. The following aspects become integral to envelope design consideration:

Materiality

  • Response to Climate
  • Plasticity or free flow (Design response)
  • Finish (Design response)
  • Opaqueness (Design response)
  • Precision & Seams/Joints

Challenges

Cleaning
Other temporary environmental phenomenon – Condensation on glass

GRFP GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER
The main advantage of this material is its high strength to weight ratio and high corrosion resistance.
GFRP plates can be two to ten times stronger than steel plates, while their weight is just 20 per cent of that of steel.

  • APPLICATION OF FRP COMPOSITES IN CONSTRUCTIONS
  • FRP composites have long been used in the construction industry. Applications range from non-structural gratings and claddings to full structural systems for industrial supports, buildings, long span roof structures, tanks, bridge components and complete bridge systems.
  • Composites present immense opportunities to play increasing role as an alternate material to replace timber, steel, aluminium, and concrete in buildings.
  • Components made of composite materials find extensive applications in shuttering supports, special architectural structures imparting aesthetic appearance, large signage etc. with the advantages like corrosion resistance, longer life, low maintenance, ease in workability, fire retardancy etc.
  • Natural fibres, as a substitute for glass fibers in FRP composite components, have gained interest in the last composite ceiling panel decade, especially in the housing sector.
  • Fibers like flax, hemp or jute are cheap, have better stiffness per unit weight and have a lower impact on the environment.
  • Structural applications are rare since existing production techniques are not applicable and availability of semi-finished materials with constant quality is still a problem.

FACT FILE

Client : Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Architect : Kalayojan Architects and Urban Designers, Mumbai
Local co-ordinator : Nigerpet Structures Ltd
Structural Designer : Sterling Consultants Pvt Ltd
Co-ordinating Structural Designer : Devang Sutaria Associates
Core Team (Architects) : Sanjay Porwal, Abhilasha Joshi,
Pathik Joshi, Kshama Rane
Roofing : VMZINC India Private Limited
and Vijaynath Roof & Wall Clading Pvt Ltd
Structural Steel Modelling & Connections : Insteel Engineers Pvt. Ltd.
Raised Podium Area : 55000 sqm
Steel Tonnage : 6500-7000 Tonnes

Sardar Patel Motera Cricket Stadium, AHMEDABAD

Motera Cricket Stadium became the world’s largest cricket stadium following its inauguration. The stadium can accommodate over 110,000 cricket fans, surpassing its preceding record holder, Melbourne Cricket Ground. After two years of demolition, the new facility completed construction on the same 63-acre site as its predecessor, Sardar Patel Stadium – which is also the new stadium’s official title.

Vision
Motera Stadium responds to the vision of Shri. Narendra Modi, the Honourable Prime Minister of India, doubling the capacity of the previous venue. Despite its size, the stadium was constructed in three years. The new home of the Gujarat Cricket Association includes 75 corporate boxes, four team dressing rooms and facilities, state-of-the-art club facilities with practice grounds, an indoor cricket academy, and a 55-room clubhouse which will have an Olympic-size swimming pool.

The Intellects
The now well-known design-build project began when L&T, one of the largest contractors in India, decided to pursue the project. Walter P Moore was contacted by L&T to join the project team based on their experience in sports structures and lightweight long span roofs.

Striking Highlights
The stadium is IGBC’s ‘Gold Rating’ under its ‘Green New Building Rating System’. The VIP Pavilion has a presidential suite and 75 corporate boxes while the club house has 55 suites and an Olympic size swimming pool. It has separate training facilities for indoor and outdoor games.
The stadium has been designed for 100 years, the stadium has about 9000 precast elements weighing from 3 MT to 285 MT. The upper bowl is of precast elements with intricate geometrical shape and heavier elements. It also includes state-of-the-art drainage system that will help reduce rain delays.

The world’s largest stadium is perhaps the best gift to a cricket crazy nation. As builders of nations, we are in the business of building the largest and the tallest, the biggest, the smartest and most complex, and the Motera Stadium will count as one of L&T’s most challenging successes in recent times. It was a stern test of our project planning, management and planning skills and we are delighted to have delivered a modern masterpiece.

S N Subrahmanyan
CEO & Managing Director, L&T Construction

Designing the roof
The concept of tensile fabric roof over upper bowl was developed by POPULOUS considering the elegant look of the stadium. L&T appointed Walter P Moore as structural consultant who has expertise in these types of roof system design. Walter P Moore carried out the design, considering the fact that the city of Ahmedabad is in seismic zone 3, the roof needed to be lightweight to reduce seismic demand and developed an economical roof system.

Therefore, very early in the design phase, it was decided that the best option would be to incorporate a lightweight cable-supported tensile membrane roof supported by steel columns. Additionally, the team decided that the reinforced concrete bowl and the roof structure needed to be independent of each other.

This decision was primarily motivated by the seismic hazard for the project. Without such an approach, the cost premium on the roof and the supporting structure due to seismic forces could have been significant.

“Engineering wise, this has been one of our most challenging projects that involved the erection of 9,000+ precast elements, including some of the heaviest weighing up to 285 MT. To me, this is another triumph of the spirit of L&T of doing the things that make India proud and teamwork that is reflected in our excellent safety record of clocking more than 20 million safe man-hours. One unique aspect of the Motera Stadium, among many, is that every seat in the stadium has an uninterrupted view of the field of play that is sure to make cricket viewing a pleasure.”

M V Satish
Whole-Time Director
& Senior Executive Vice President, L&T Construction

Ultimately, Walter P Moore and L&T design team decided a tensile fabric roof system that is seismically separate from the concrete seating bowl and supported by steel ‘V’ shaped columns. The cantilever span of the tensile membrane system is around 30m and covers the upper bowl of the stadium. The tensile membrane system primarily comprises of a two-chord compression ring at the outer edge (stadium perimeter) and a single tension ring cable on the inner edge (toward field of play). The radial cables are pretensioned and tied to the outer compression ring with cable connectors forming ridges and valleys for the membrane roof. The radial cables are aligned in such a way that rainwater flows over the membrane and drains into the gutter positioned along the lower chord of the compression ring, this, in turn, provides shape to the membrane panel.

The outer compression ring is supported on the structural steel ‘V’ columns along the circumference at regular intervals. In addition to serving as gravity supports, ‘V’ columns also provide resistance to lateral loads for the roof. The structural steel columns are typically supported on the RC column at the concourse level. The inner tension ring also supports catwalk running all through the inner tension ring circumference. The field of play lights are mounted on the catwalk along its perimeter and it also allows access for inspection and maintenance of the tensile structure. A non-linear analysis program NDN ® was used to analyse and study the behaviour of the structure for several gravities, seismic, and wind load combinations.

We always challenge our engineering capabilities, by strategizing to develop unique designs that perform well when executed and thereby contribute to the world of engineering by adopting latest technologies. The Motera Stadium is one among them. Our Engineering design and Execution teams always collaborate to perform herculean tasks. We relish in teamwork and success. This project is our tribute to our nation, and we are truly proud of our contribution.

R Eswaran
Design Head, L&T Construction

The Stadium roof follows the oval shape of the stadium bowl, the massive compression truss thus trails this oval shape around the perimeter of the stadium. The entire length of the oval-shaped compression truss would be around a kilometre.

The roof erection involved synchronous pulling of the cables from the compression ring supported by the columns, this was imperative to avoid unbalanced loading on the compression ring. Although challenging due to a limited number of strand jacks that were used during erection, various parties including L&T, Walter P Moore, and a specialty contractor for cables, came together and worked collaboratively which resulted in a successful erection process.

Several engineeringly challenging structures are taking shape with speed and precision, thanks to the advantages of precast engineering. Be it the Motera Stadium, the world’s largest cricket stadium, or the Al Rayyan stadium in Qatar being made ready for the FIFA 2022 Football World Cup or a series of metro rail systems, high-rise residential towers or factories, L&T is taking precasting to the next level.

Subrata Dutta
Project Director, L&T Construction

“The bowl is a reinforced concrete structure that is inherently very heavy,” explains Director of Design Viral Patel. “The lightweight roof structure, on the other hand, is not arranged to readily accommodate inelastic behaviour. Without separating the bowl from the roof, the bowl would have been subjected to amplified seismic demand from the roof.”

PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), Teflon-coated woven fiberglass, was stretched between a circumferential inner tension ring and an outer compression ring. A wind tunnel test was also performed to optimize roof design. Wind load provisions in most codes do not address roof structure for stadiums such as Motera. Additionally, for a structure such as Motera’s roof, it is important to study the effects of unbalanced wind loads, which is not covered in building codes. Walter P Moore used Load Response Correlation Method to develop critical wind load patterns from the wind tunnel test.

Motera Stadium is a destination for true cricket fans to immerse themselves into an interactive, colourful and large sporting event atmosphere. Cricket is the biggest sport in India and this stadium has been designed to bring together as many fans as possible, creating an incredible atmosphere for international cricket, IPL matches through to regional and community games.


Andrew James
Senior Principal, Populous

Doubly Curved Facade
The façade has a complicated three-dimensional profile developed using advanced software. The back frame is made of steel tubes bent to a 3D profile and the outer skin surface, discretized into segments each made of aluminium sheets bent to profile using computer aided cutting machines.

Stadium Precast Elements
The most complicated part of design and execution is the upper bowl that has intricate geometric shape columns. Precast elements of 35 m in length and 285 MT in weight were used to significantly reduce the number of joints to a minimum and speed up construction.

Plant and Machinery Used

  • Tower Crane – 2 Nos.
  • Major Crane – 600 Ton (5 Nos.)
  • & 300 Ton (2 Nos)
  • Telescopic crane – 100 Ton (8 Nos)
  • Gantry crane – 75/ 20 Ton (7 Nos)
  • Mobile crane – 300 Ton (1 Nos)
  • Batching Plant – 30 cum/hr (2 Nos.)
  • Telescopic Man Lift – 120 to 150 ft (10 Nos)

The reinforced concrete bowl structure had expansion joints whereas the roof structure, due to virtue of its nature cannot have such joints. A combined interaction, analysis, and behaviour of such structures are complex. This problem was simplified by having a separate structural system for the roof and the bowl. This strategy also allowed independent teams to work simultaneously on two separate structures to meet an aggressive project schedule.


Amol Acharya
Director of Structural Engineering for India, Walter P Moore

Challenges faced:
The steel roof had to be executed with minimal tolerance as per the analytical and design requirements. The erection of the steel compression ring, pulling and locking of radial fully locked cables at various stages as per erection sequence, laying of fabric sequentially as per design requirement and coordination with all stake holders were challenging tasks.

The most critical part of precast element was the erection process of lifting the complicated shaped, heavy weight ‘Y’ Column from a horizontal to a vertical position that was achieved with in house expertise using a specially made C-Clamp and trunnion arrangement.

I got the opportunity to be a part of the design team of many stadiums in the US. However, getting a chance to design the roof of the biggest cricket stadium in the world, only a few years after moving back to Pune to start our India operations, is like a dream come true. For our firm, to have been part of the design team bringing innovation to an iconic venue such as Motera in India is a deep honour and privilege. May every fan that visits the venue experience the passion that we have had in designing this outstanding project


Abhijit Shah
Principal and Managing Director, Walter P Moore India

Integrating the steel frame with the skeleton aluminium panel of the façade was a major challenge, as different agencies were involved. An advanced design software was used to coordinate and transfer the details precisely for successful execution.

Due to space constraints and continuous movement of public visiting the temple inside the site premises, logistic planning was tough which was overcome by micro level planning the construction sequence of significant erection and assembly activities.

A 132 kV thermal power transmission line passing through a narrow portion of the site that crossed over the stadium bowl was relocated as an underground line enabling site progress.

Safety Adherence & Manpower
The project site has received various National and International safety awards like the globally approved British Safety Council 5-star rating with SWORD OF HONOUR, RoSPA Gold Rating certification and PRASHANSA PATRA from NSC.

Team Motera has followed all best practices in terms of EHS and Site team showed commitment to achieve organization’s Goal of “ZERO HARM”. The project had clocked more than 21 million safe man hours with zero ‘Loss of Time” Injury.

At peak times, 200 + engineers and 2500 + workmen were engaged in this landmark project.

S-Forms India Pvt Ltd, Pune

Korean Enterprise S-Forms India Pvt Ltd wanted to create an Industrial Complex of Aluminum formwork components for Indian Construction Industry on plot no C-23/4 MIDC Chakan Phase 2, Pune.

Intent
Prashant Deshmukh & Associates (PDA) were the turnkey consultants for the project. The Industrial complex intended to manufacture Aluminum form work for walls, beams, and slabs. Clients desired the factory building to be preferably in Aluminum and Steel. The plant required internally quality light, ventilation, and comfortable working condition within Shop floor. The site planned was proposed to provide for nine meters peripheral road with a provision of future expansion of a plant area of 7000 sq. meters and sufficient area for open yard.

Steel Intensive
The current plant built is 8220 sq. meters with 1st Floor for facilities in attached annexe. Steel was used because it is adoptable, sustainable, resilient capable of long spans thus offering column free spaces. Also, it can be recycled and accelerates the time for construction. For an Architect flexibility of Steel is incomparable to any other material.

Structural Specifications
The production building up to plant is 50mtrs 142 meters, with a tie level of 9 meters and ridge at 12.5 meters. The Shop floor is divided into two equal spans with central row of columns designed with brackets to take crane loads and movement on either side whereas each bay is 25mtrs142mtrs.

The PEB structural design is worked in Staadpro software. Steel used is IS 800 with a grade of 250M/MM2. The office building is minimalistic with combination of ACP and sings on the same tune of overall design while becoming integral part of the main structure.

Steel was used because it is adoptable, sustainable, resilient capable of long spans thus offering column free spaces. Also, it can be recycled and accelerates the time for construction. For an Architect flexibility of Steel is incomparable to any other material.” Choice of range of colours is a boom for architects to make the build form with modern looks and impact.

Prashant Deshmukh
Principal Architect
Prashant Deshmukh & Associates

Architectural Aesthetics
Roof Panel/ cladding sheet:
0.50mm thick pre-coated galvalume roof sheeting with glass wool insulation of 24kg/ cu. m density and 50mm thick with white backing having embedded mesh

Wall Panel: 0.5 mm thick pre-coated galvalume wall panel sheets as per approved color (Grey) and is projected, 500 mm outside the external face of columns on 3 sides of shop floor.

Wall Lighting: 2 mm thick vertical polycarbonate day lighting panels strips (1000 mm wide) along 3 – sides from Lintel level 3000MM to 7600MM from bottom.

Accessories: Flashing, gutters, and PVC downspouts of sheeting material from inside.

Canopy: Reverse slope canopy 9 nos. at 5.0 m clear height from FFL. Along fascia and soffit panel below, gutter and downspouts.

Roof Lighting: 2 mm thick polycarbonate day lighting panels 1 m * 18 m for roof with safety net below.

Flooring: Trimix flooring with Baekert steel fibers to take care of shear while surface concrete is provided with densification for fine finish.

EOT Cranes: No of crane – 6 nos
Hook Height – 6.70 M
Load Capacity – 03.MT

The overall outcome is creation in proportionate volumetric built form in terms of width and height and the main color (Grey) used with different shades enhances the beauty of the Industrial Structure. Most of the visitors expressed that the moment the expansion takes place the rising of 2nd Building complimenting the 1st one will create more impressive impact of the Industrial perspective.

Proposed Railway Structure, Maharashtra

Nagpur Railway Station is one of the oldest and busiest stations in Maharashtra, a prime junction built in 1867. The city of Nagpur is slated to be developed as a smart city, concentrating on high impact infrastructure development. Nagpur Railway Station is therefore, being redeveloped in a bid to ease congestion and to meet the needs of the city that is growing fast as an important IT, educational and health hub. Railway stations are today the epicenters of the growth and development in any city and have capabilities to develop much more than a transit mode.

Design Intent
It is a proposed design by Creative Group to develop the masterplan and design the proposed redevelopment of the Nagpur Railway Station. They believe in generating design schemes that add value and are commercially viable. Through the design of the Nagpur Railway Station and its precinct, the aim is to restructure the station with better amenities, create connections within the city, connect the main concourse with the main flow, and boost influential growth in the precinct by insertion of plug-ins in tandem with the existing urban fabric. The focus is on multi- modality and increasing commercial and economic viability by means of PPP mode.

Salient Features
With the integration of different modes of transport and creation of an inter-modal hub, the design is expected to boost the economy of the region. Instead of existing one entry – now three entries have been proposed – one on the rear and one through the upper levels to maximize circulation. The aim is to fully utilize the available area and have multiple uses in the same space, railway land has been used for maximum commercial potential and develop a district centre. This promotes last mile connectivity as well, and beings work, play and travel in the same place.

Taking lead from global technological advancements, an elevated city above the railway tracks at the flyover level, with a drop-off curb for the station, has been visualized. The entire skyscape has been utilized and conceptualized with dynamic and vibrant spaces within. The station is designed considering ergonomic factors effecting people and their needs, making it inclusive and functional.

The proposal is sustainable—buildings have been oriented north to south for maximum glare-free light, with large overhangs, mutually-shaded and ventilated courtyards and green roofs for thermal insulation, and skylights for inducing sunlight. The sustainable and energy efficient buildings form a part of the design that promotes active public life at the precinct. Care has been taken to provide and maximize green spaces within and around the precinct, making it a source of civic pride as well. The precinct has been designed to maximize functionality of urban spaces on a daily basis, by provision of office lots (45 per cent), retail (30 per cent), hotels (10 per cent) and residential lots (10 per cent).

Encounters
Since it is a brownfield development, it was a challenge to propose such massive redevelopment and proposing intramodality as well as other activities within the same precinct. A comprehensive approach to developing, enhancing, and managing public spaces has been adopted for this project.

Taking cues from the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur, architect believed that the creation of an inter-modal hub at Nagpur Junction can contribute positively to the construction of a Central Business District (CBD) at the station, which can then coexist as one of two major hubs of the city. By provisions of Foot over bridges (FOBs), slip roads and public piazzas, they have tried to connect the city within and increase the last mile connectivity to and from the site.

Designed as a multi-use destination, we believe the Nagpur Railway Station and its precinct can become important anchors for civic activity that can host a broader range of engagements. Additionally, the station building has been revitalized though strong place-making, contributing to social cohesion and pedestrianism. The airspace above the tracks has been utilized by provision of a podium with commercial spaces to foster maximum public interaction. We have envisioned around 20 such railway stations for the future such as Nagpur, Ambala Cantt., Chennai Egmore, Pune, Mumbai Central and Thakurli, among many others. This is the developmental vision for the future – combining multi- modality, last mile connectivity and commercialization. This is the future of urban development.

Ar. Gurpreet Shah, Principal Architect, Creative Group

Uniqueness
For the structure, the steel columns support the metal deck floor. The roof structure is a modular shell shaped metal exoskeleton —a light-weight steel structure with Kalzip roofing, while the covering is of tensile fabric allowing sunlight into the building supported by tensile cables. The form of the station is innovative in its design and fabric roofing adds to the design of the state-of-the-art station.

There is structural glazing on both sides of the roof, thus allowing for maximum sunlight within the station building. The roof is a combination of double standing seam and tensile structure.

Besides this, for the main commercial buildings, a podium has been designed above the existing railway tracks, due to less availability of free space on the ground. The base structure is supported by massive structural columns, while the trusses support the hung sections of the building.

Three different designs have been employed: The first is modular in nature, the second with historic intent engaging the local flavor of Nagpur, and the third is a light-weight futuristic structure. The project is currently at its proposal stage with stakeholders to be yet finalized.

The Warehouse Park Phase1, Hyderabad

Zeromile Warehousing Pvt. Ltd, a reputed name in the country in warehousing and logistics, approached the Consultant, Epicenter Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd., with their intention to develop a 36-acre land near Hyderabad (T.S) into a Warehouse Park. They wanted it to contain 4 giant warehouses, with a cumulative area of around one million square feet, and to be developed in different phases. The plan dimensions of the warehouses were decided by ZMW based on logistics and local regulations among other factors. Consultant was informed that the sub-soil strata consisted of shallow sheet rock for majority of the plot area, and that it was hard soil for remaining area.

Ideation
As the 2 warehouses in ‘Phase-1’ were to be leased to MNCs that focused on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming and artificial intelligence, Sundeep Reddy – ZMW Director wanted the warehouses and related infrastructure to be designed as per International Standards.

Before the Consultants took on the structural design, they had to work on, and freeze, some important design parameters such as warehouse height, roof slope, column spacing, fire protection methods, solar panel requirements, lighting, ventilation etc. The sub-soil exploration was considered as 10m deep boreholes, and 3m deep trial pits, scattered evenly over the site extent.

Steel Significance
In view of the requirements for larger eaves height and greater column spacing, the “steel” gable frame emerged as the clear winner when compared with RCC frame or even composite construction with trusses. It was entirely structural steel from above the warehouse plinth. RCC was confined to sub-structure, while a 5′ high block-wall enclosed each warehouse.

Sayed Hyder Hussaini

With spans of 110m and 100m for the double gable frame, restricting lateral sway, longitudinal drift and member deflections within allowable limits was a challenge. Another challenge was to limit the steel tonnage to the least we could. With gigantic dimensions, this was not easy. After several design options regarding the support conditions, frame spacing, braced bay locations, member profiles and member releases, we could achieve a gross tonnage well below 5 kg/sq. ft. Our tactical blend of ‘fixed’ and ‘pinned’ supports brought down the overall warehouse cost by approximately 20 per cent from the initial estimate. A customized automated template was especially developed to obtain design wind pressures for various structural elements of the space frame. Likewise, baseplates, anchor bolts, stiffeners and shear keys were all designed using ‘in-house’ ECE software.

Sayed Hyder Hussaini
Managing Director,
Epicenter Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd

Features
Sundeep Reddy, with his rich experience gained over the years, has been actively involved in the architectural and logistic aspect of the project from the beginning. He made the Architects to work on a variety of options with regards to elevations, fascia, entrance, skylights, mezzanine layouts, canopies, docking and parking facilities from which the final ideas were selected and forwarded to ECE for the next phase viz. Structural Design, Tekla Modeling and Connection Design.

Geometrics
Warehouse in Phase-1 consists of a double-gable space frame with an area of 4,26,000 sq. ft., and had started initially as two independent units, 100mx177m each, spaced 10m apart. Subsequently, the units were merged into a double-gable unit as required by end user. It has already been taken by Mahindra Logistics, who as a 3 PL service provider will house Amazon as the customer.

Six rows of 16m span jack-beams run along the building length supporting rafters for alternate frames. Sheeting consists of seamless profiles from reputed Indian suppliers.

Both the side walls have 5m wide continuous canopies running along the building length in reverse slope. The warehouse has 26,500 sq. ft. of mezzanines, continuous roof monitors, firefighting system, sky lighting, ventilators & dock levelers in addition to an elegant fascia on its front.

Foundation consists of 200 footings, with an equal number of concentric pedestals, resisting wind shear and bending moments, in addition to the usual gravity loads. A 300mm thick RCC wall ties the edge pedestals, thus restricting their bending about their major axes, while retaining the 1.2m deep soil from within the building.

Learnings
One of the challenges for Consultant was to limit steel tonnage to the least possible. With 13.5m eaves height and huge column free area requirements, this was not easy. The Consultants, therefore, worked with several permutations and combinations, varying support conditions, frame spacing, member profiles and even member releases, to finally arrive at the most economical structural configuration. Member profiles were based on moment envelopes, connections were both ‘shear’ and ‘moment’ type and adequate splices were introduced considering transportation limitations.

Restricting lateral sway, structure drift and rafter deflections to within limits was another big challenge. Structural design was done as per AISC–ASD, while serviceability criteria were based on MBMA-2006

Another design challenge was the fact that the ‘double-gable’ warehouse was to be built as two separate warehouses at different points of time, such that the functioning of the first unit would not have to be interrupted while the second unit was being built. This, therefore, required the structure to be prudently analyzed for below two scenarios:

  • As two single units, 100m x 177m each (spaced 10m apart).
  • As one single unit, 210m x 177m.

Member sizes governed by the above two cases were considered as the required sizes. Though steel tonnage increased slightly, this was necessary to account for effects of a possible ‘strong wind’ on the first unit until construction of the balance part viz. second unit.

To ensure uninterrupted operation of the first unit, steel brackets were designed and fixed to each column along common line. These would later support rafters of the second unit. Special precautions were taken for design of valley gutter, associated RWPs and internal drains in view of the huge contributory area from adjacent roofs.

Usually, economical configurations require extreme columns to be ‘fixed’, internal columns to be ‘pinned’ and columns for cantilevers to be ‘prismatic’.

Exceptionally high soil SBCs (200 ton/sq. m in present case) help reduce footing and pedestal sizes, even for fixed supports. Fixed column supports result in heavier footings and pedestals (60 per cent heavier in present case), but it brings down the overall warehouse cost by at least 20 per cent.

Though the total duration of Phase-1 including design, construction, fabrication, erection and flooring was initially estimated at 10 months, it is likely to exceed the schedule by at least 50 per cent because of Covid-19 pandemic.

Software Details
Structural Analysis & Design: STAAD.Pro
Drafting: AutoCAD/ ZWCAD
Detailing/ Modeling: Tekla Structures
Footing & Pedestal Design: ECE Software
Wind Loads: ECE Template
Connection Design: RAM Connection/ ECE Software
Detailed Steel MTO : ECE Template

Fact File
Client, Developer& PMC: Zeromile Warehousing Pvt. Ltd
Structural Consultant: Epicenter Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd
Steel Supplier & Fabricator: Kirby Building Systems
& Structures India Pvt Ltd
Architects: F6 Architects
Steel Tonnage: 2000 MT
Status: Ongoing

Knowledge Park, Hyderabad

Knowledge Park design is conceived to be a new age IT campus in Hi-Tech City, Hyderabad. It is futuristic and portrays as a destination by its own. It is spread across 10 Acres of land.

Total built-up area is of 5-Million Sq. ft comprising of two-towers, one having 30-levels and the other of 26-levels. Knowledge Park is IGBC Platinum Certified Green Building. Entire project right from the foundation / basements to the super structure is designed and being executed as a Composite steel structure.

Thought Process
There has been a growing interest in Hyderabad as an IT destination. The demand for business space for IT and financial sectors on built-to-suit and ready to build basis is also increasing constantly.

Keeping in view all the points, a was building to provide office infrastructure and business support for computer software companies, working in the electronics, telecommunications, engineering, and finance sectors.

As the site is located in Hi-Tech city of Hyderabad and the site profile being triangular in shape, having different levels of roads on all 3 sides, RSP Consultants who could do justice in dealing with such complex site by proper planning, best utilization of site contours and who could create a futuristic iconic structure were selected. Also, they had the requisite experience in dealing with commercial IT projects.

The designers were told to utilize the road levels on all 3 sides well, by giving multiple entry /exits for easy flow of traffic within the campus and outside the campus. A brief was also given to design efficient workspaces with proper light and good ventilation.

The architects were instructed to provide shuttle bus bay parking for IT employees. They also provided first class amenity facilities and finally created a futuristic and iconic structure.

 

Salarpuria Sattva Knowledge Park is a cutting-edge IT and ITES business park located in Hyderabad spread over 10 acres of land. This IGBC Platinum rated campus is designed to provide end to end solutions, to the companies operating out of it, as well as the associates working in the campus. The project has a built-up area of around 5 million sq. Ft which includes office space, amenity block and parking and services space. While steel can be a volatile commodity, it is one of the most important materials used in the building. It possesses properties that include durability, versatility and strength making. When buying steel, some parameters like identification mark from the manufacturing company, ensuring that steel is rust free and reading the technical specifications described in the product literature, can ensure that the structure stays durable for a long time.
MAHESH KHAITAN
Director, Salarpuria Sattva Group

 

Overcoming Challenges & Steeling Edifice
Initially, this building was planned as RCC structure with PT technology. But when it was changed to steel structure, then came the challenges to deal with MEP services, since floor to floor height is fixed.

Steel provides design freedom, supporting architect expectations to design state-of-art buildings and trends of open ceiling designs for interiors. Steel’s long span ability creates space eliminating intermediate col / load bearing walls.

It is unique in its ability to provide curved structures, segmented structures, twisting beams for ramps and skylight structures etc. It is also earthquake resistant, due to its ductile and flexile properties and has considerable capacity to resist lateral loads caused by wind and cyclones. It is rapid, effective and practical.

The assembling is quick and efficient in all seasons. Due to prefabrication capability, the structure can be assembled off site and erected in days. This offers time saving, when compared to bottom to top activities in other construction methods.

Steel is also lighter in weight which reduces the foundation sizes which minimizes the excavation of natural ground. Considering time saving, mechanical equipment utilization and manpower dependency, it proves to be cost effective with earlier return on investment. However, the initial cost is on the higher side when compared to other construction methods. Steel-built buildings are often more adaptable, with greater potential for alterations to be made over time, extending the lifetime of the structure. Steel structure creates less – dust, noise, site related wastages. With extensive testing methods, experts have gained the knowledge of how it reacts to fire. All the codal requirements with various materials allow for precise specification of fire protection.

Uniqueness
The Iconic façade of Tower 2 is inspired from the Bar Code Pattern of Digital Revolution- A bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine read format. It is represented by widths and spacing of parallel lines.

The multi – colour bar code pattern glass has been the highlighter of this signature façade, keeping all LEED / IGBC Platinum Rating in mind. Rolled glass has a distinct pattern on one or both surfaces. It is a decorative and translucent glass, with patterns on one face. In addition to diffusing light and obstructing visibility from the outside, the figures soften the interior lighting.

Amenity Block Façade also is Dynamic in form. The shape of the amenity block façade is a visual treat and will offer an enhanced aesthetic experience. The amenity block façade is more durable, cost effective, energy efficient and environment friendly.

Structural steel plates are procured from Jindal factory and the built-up sections are manufactured at JSSL factory.

 

Fact File

Architect: RSP Design Consultants Pvt Ltd
Structural Consultant: Design Tree Service Consultants Pvt Ltd
Steel Fabricator: JSSL Severfield Structures Limited
Steel Tonnage: 25,000 Tonnes (Approx.)
Status: Ongoing

Prestige Kingfisher Tower, Bangalore

The majestic Kingfisher Tower located in Bangalore has been built by Prestige Construction and United Breweries to serve as a luxury residence. Architects Thomas Associates and Structural Engineers Sterling Engineering Consultancy led proficient design teams to the completion of this urban edifice.

Client Brief
Client brief was simple, when it comes to a complete analysis of structural safety, the magnitude of the task at hand can be assessed. It’s not the first time that the team was asked to design a penthouse for a client, but it was the first penthouse designed that sat atop a thirty-three storey mega-structure with cantilevered landscaped gardens, an infinity pool, and a helipad!

Architectural Features
The residential structure was planned for three towers of twenty-seven floors each, which share common basements, parking levels and entry levels.

Two basements levels and four additional floors above the ground provide parking for the triplet. From the fifth floor is the residential suits which continue till the thirty-third storey. From the south face of the structure, five distinct levels house recreational floors at five storey intervals to house swimming pools, landscaped gardens and gymnasiums.

At these floors, the individual towers connect to create a large base plate. From the north face of the structure, at the thirty-third floor a swimming pool rests on top of the tower and a cantilevered garden projects 18 meters beyond the structure on either side.

The designed scissor shape inclined struts support this structure which stands out as a unique feature in the north elevation of this structure. The complexities in design started as early as the foundation, but the enthusiastic and every-ready design team considered all challenges as opportunities for innovation and learning.

The foundation of the structure was designed as per the soil investigation reports as isolated footings. An unexpected finding after excavation showed the loss in bearing capacity of the soil around the bore holes taken for testing. This led to redesign of the isolated foundation under the west tower. The variation of floor plan from parking to residential suits to intermittent recreational floors and subsequently the penthouse required floating of major columns.

The southern elevation shows five prominent recreational levels which have restricted beam depths and floating columns. The structure designed as a R.C.C framed structure benefited from the use of Composite Construction in specific large load carrying members. The connecting areas are supported using a metal deck slab spanning between a network of structural steel beams and girders to create a large base for the recreational level. The use of structural steel not only helped in avoiding shuttering but also minimized construction time. Composite construction reduces the cost of the structure as compared to construction in solely R.C.C or Steel and significantly reduced structural member sizes and considered aesthetics of indoor spaces.

 

With an eye for aesthetics as well as structural integrity, Sterling Engineering proposed the use of inclined scissor-shaped struts to support the cantilevers at the penthouse. These unique features as compared to simple-inclined struts makes the structure stand out. As seen in the north elevation a single strut establishes itself from the 27th floor column and splices into two members. This junction uses a steel mechanism embedded into the slab to distribute the loads. Precast R.C.C. brackets were fitted with steel plates for bolted connections to the hollow steel sections of the struts. The splices terminate at the base of the cantilever at the 33rd floor and are fixed using a steel plate and bolt mechanism. Two such identical scissor arrangements under each cantilever along with the help of cross bracings provide lateral stability. Provision of a secondary bolt fitted under the primary bolt ensures safety in case of failure or slip until repairs are carried out.
Amit Shantanu Shinde
Project Leader, Sterling Engineering Consultancy Services Limited

 

Geometrics
Space constraints in and around the construction site due to surrounding structures and roadways restricted the location of construction cranes on the south end. Communication between the structural consultant and contractor regarding crane loading, moment calculations and safety is essential to ensure that cranes provided on site are adequate to lift members and deliver equipment.

This structure made use of two cranes placed on the south side of the structure which outstretched their arms to provide support to the northern end of the structure during construction of the scissors and cantilevered girders.

To provide enough stability to the cranes, slabs of two floors under the crane base were supported using props which were removed post-construction. The structure did not require provision of a central core with shear walls as the stiffness of the towers was enough due to its intermittent connections at recreational levels.

The unique aspect and a design challenge of this structure was the two-storey Penthouse. An additional transfer level at 33rd floor was required to support the penthouse at 34th and 35th level. As seen in plan, the penthouse cantilevers in three regions, two on the north end carrying landscaped areas and one at the south supporting the penthouse.

The penthouse is supported on thirty-three-meter-long and five-meter-deep structural steel trusses which are resting on southern peripheral columns. Within the penthouse area we have achieved a column free space spanning fifteen meters which is supported on one-meter-deep rib beams all skilfully placed to consider aesthetics.

With an eye for aesthetics as well as structural integrity, Sterling Engineering proposed the use of inclined scissor-shaped struts to support the cantilevers at the penthouse. These unique features as compared to simple-inclined struts make the structure stand out.

As seen in the north elevation a single strut establishes itself from the 27th floor column and splices into two members. This junction uses a steel mechanism embedded into the slab to distribute the loads. Precast R.C.C. brackets were fitted with steel plates for bolted connections to the hollow steel sections of the struts.

The splices terminate at the base of the cantilever at the 33rd floor and are fixed using a steel plate and bolt mechanism. Two such identical scissor arrangements under each cantilever along with the help of cross bracings provide lateral stability. Provision of a secondary bolt fitted under the primary bolt ensures safety in case of failure or slip until repairs are carried out.

Using Steel
The variation of floor plan from parking to residential suits to intermittent recreational floors and subsequently the penthouse required floating of major columns. The southern elevation shows five prominent recreational levels which have restricted beam depths and floating columns. The structure designed as a R.C.C framed structure benefited from the use of composite construction in specific large load carrying members.

The connecting areas are supported using a metal deck slab spanning between a network of structural steel beams and girders to create a large base for the recreational level. The use of structural steel not only helped in avoiding shuttering but also minimized construction time. Composite construction reduces the cost of the structure as compared to construction in solely R.C.C or steel and significantly reduced structural member sizes and considered aesthetics of indoor spaces.

Sterling Engineering’s design team at the head office in Kurla, Mumbai performed all design related calculations and drawing submittals and all site inspection visits and reporting was carried out from Sterling’s Bangalore office to ensure fast response to our clients. The project was completed in 2018 and has been a landmark project for the city of Bangalore and all disciplines associated with it.

Learnings & Technology
ETABS software was used to model the building’s RCC and Composite members. To design the unique scissor-struts STAAD Pro was used. All outgoing drawings are drafted using AutoCAD.

Sterling Engineering has worked with Prestige Developers of Bangalore in the past and has always pushed for a call for innovation and efficiency in our designs and submissions. They value all their relations with all disciplines that thoroughly enjoy the work.

The city of Bangalore has many upcoming landmark developments which we hope to be part of soon. As all construction projects are concerned, coordination and managed are key to successful and timely completion. The project was competed in four years.

Fact File

Client: The UB Group
Developer : Prestige Estates Projects Ltd
Architect: Thomas Associates
Structural Consultant: Sterling Engineering Consultancy Services Pvt Ltd
MEP Consultant: Design Tree Service Consultants Pvt Ltd & Cerebration Consultants
Steel Fabricator: Eversendai Construction Pvt Ltd
Steel Tonnage: 1850MT
Status: Completed

Bhubaneswar Airport, Odisha

Design Intent
The brief of the proposed terminal building posed a challenge to meet the aspiration of passengers which was to have a glimpse of such a large treasure of culture and heritage. The existing terminal building stands in stark contrast to the old building in terms of planning, design and technology which furthers the challenge for the proposed design to bring in harmony and balance.

Thus, the main brief was to understand the rich cultural heritage of the place with its art and architecture and to identify various aspects in terms of spatial configuration and building elements from local architecture which can be incorporated in the built form, interiors and landscape of the terminal building with context and theme.

Ideation
Talking about Orissa the first thing that strikes one’s mind is the great “CHARIOT PARADE” or the “RATH YATRA’ of Jagannath Puri which gives meaning to every aspect of a journey and hence to life. Through this project, the intend to bring that experiential feel to life for the visitors along with showcasing the ancient and modern elements of Bhubaneswar to give complete meaning to every journey whether from or to this magnificent city.

Steeling Essence
With constant reviewing of technological advancements and updating the material is recommend for design and construction. Steel is a preferred material due to its versatility. Steel’s strength to weight ratio enables light weight forms and flexibility in regenerative design projects. Steel’s malleability and ductility along with cost bends to our will to create ever larger span structures.

Use of steel is also beneficial during time constraints when steel prefabrication can take place off-site and quick assembly can be achieved on-site with guaranteed precision.

Architectural Characteristics
The new airport is envisioned to create a fusion of traditional and modern architecture, adopted from the symbolic Jagannath Rath and Konark wheel, in the spirit of movement. The corbelled roofing profile for the building form as well as the stone bands with motifs is replicated on the front facade, creating a distinct style in aviation architecture. The division of the vertical massing on the bullnose of the roof of the airport is derived from the topmost part of the temple.

The drop off bay is flanked by huge columns which are designed reflecting the traditional motifs and sculptures while the wheels of the chariot are symbolic to ‘Sun Dial’, both inspired from traditional temple architecture. Using the locally available soapstone for the sundial and the timber for the band with motifs on the top not only retains its original character but also makes it cost-effective. The laser cut jaali with bronze golden finish clearly sets a good example for fusing the contemporary materials with traditional design elements.

The project is a compliment to a holistic development based on the local context, not just in terms of elevation but also volume and space. As the visitors enters the building, they should feel as if they have entered the temple itself. “Architecture has the capacity to influence people’s behaviour and their feelings. Only when they will be able to relate with their surroundings, is when they will experience a sense of belonging and ownership towards it.” As visitors enter the departure area on the first floor, they are greeted by large open spaces flanked with landscaped area and flooded by light wells, thus bringing about the notion of moving through a large temple complex. The entire theme of the airport revolves around taking the visitor through the yatra themselves.

 

This is a very special project since this project changes the perception of how terminals are designed in India. Local art and culture are just not in the artwork but also in the extent of terminal’s interior and exterior design. This terminal is also unique since the passenger flow processes have been digitized, thereby increasing efficiency in processes like security check, baggage screening, etc. The time saved in this process shall provide the opportunity to the passenger to relax in the hold room and enjoy the retail and F&B experience.
Gurpreet Shah
Principal Architect, Creative Group

Art in Architecture
Fifteen days before the yatra the three Gods, Balabhadra, Subhadra and Jagannath are taken for bath with 108 pots of cold water from the sacred well of Goddess Sitala and then covered with Ganesh Vesha (Elephant masks). Huge animals are symbols of power and protection, the same being reason behind presence of huge animal sculptures while entering the temples of Bhubaneswar. “The Lion Guard” intends to bring a feeling of safety, purity and grandeur right from the time visitors enter the building. Additions of 108 kalasha are taken from the Rath Yatra where the deities are washed to rejuvenate them.

The area after the staircase intends to show the phase where Goddess Laxmi is taking care of Lord Jagannath after which he takes permission and comes out for the beginning of the Yatra. The Art installation of a Lotus shell transformation tries to depict this fable. Even in the interior of the building, various artworks have been introduced to reimagine mythological episodes associated with the city and its people. The pillars with the Modern Vahanas on the top would symbolize the Angaraga that depicts evolution, development and how things change and looking at something in a new light.

Inspired by Pattachitra motifs and colors, the check in counter backdrop constitutes of curved lines in the form of garlands and floral patterns constructed of lacquered glass and brass. Even the soffit level of the hold areas is depicted with tribal artworks of brass and thread work with backlighting. The feature walls made of calcium silicate panels digitally printed with local art, wheels of the chariot forming an abstract city skyline and recreation of the grand chariot welcoming the passengers into the city, are all ways to make this building meant as a transit corridor into something much more.

Geometrics
Planning of the building was done not only to ease the conventional passenger flow but also to not invoke the feeling of going through a terminal building, rather a place where people would want to be. To induce this further, granite flooring highlighter bands help in way finding – a technique for promoting a user-friendly design by invoking various senses of the person.

The form of the building – the corbelling provides an advantage in providing skylights of FRP jali made of polycarbonate sheets, thus flooding the building with natural light and reduce energy consumption. The use of materials has also been planned to make the project economically sustainable.

High pressure laminates over the structural columns lend it the required stone finish while using pre-cast members for the structure make it easy to assemble and save time. The structure also uses post- tensioning to increase the structural strength and achieve the required large span structure. Acoustically treated ceilings with wooden panels have also been used to improve the performance of the building.

After the conceptualization of the project and basic decisions regarding the planning, architectural software like CAD and modelling software like Sketchup were used for generating drawings and 3- D for the project. The Building Information Modelling (BIM) was used like CAD, Revit software to simulate and understand the airport and airspace between them. Bhubaneswar Airport gave an opportunity to track building areas for program and gauge the IRR for commercial development.

Experience
The experience of the project was almost spiritual with an aim to design the entire project, from the signage to the artwork on the ceiling as a tribute to Odisha’s large treasure of culture and heritage. It was unique to think beyond steel and large span structures by providing a soul in the building using local flavour of Bhubaneswar. The ideation of the digital flow processes and local terminal aesthetics gave this project a perfect balance to create an iconic design.

The project was initiated in December 2018, when the proposal for the design was floated. The design was conceptualised in the following month and finalised in January 2019.

 

Fact File

Architect: Creative Group
Client: SGS India Pvt Ltd, Airports Authority of India
Status: Under Construction

Phoenix Aquila, Hyderabad

“Phoenix Aquila” is a commercial project situated adjoining Continental Hospital, Finance District, in Hyderabad, Telangana State. The conceptualization while planning was done to create an Iconic landmark in Finance District of Hyderabad with not only a unique aesthetical look but also with facility, services and flexibility of space utilization in the premises for the end user.

Specifications
“Phoenix Aquila” is a commercial project comprising of 2 Blocks – Block ‘A’ & Block ‘B’. The total construction area for both the towers is approx. 26.90 Lakhs Sq. ft. The Block ‘A’ structure has 3 basements + Ground Floor + 7 MLCP Floors + 16 Typical Office floors. The building height from basement is 105.83m and the total construction area is approx. 18.10 Lakhs Sq. ft. The Block ‘B’ also has 3 Basements + Ground Floor + 16 Typical office floors. The building height from basement is 82.3 m and the total construction area is approx. 8.80 Lakhs Sq. ft.

The Structural framing system for the building consists the follows:

  • All columns are RCC columns up to mid basement Level.
  • The Tower columns above middle basement level are composite box columns with self-compacting concrete of grade M 60 / M 50 / M 40 filled in.
  • The lift walls & staircase walls are R.C.C
  • Staircase and lift core portion have RCC beams/slabs in M 45 / M 35.
  • Basement 1, Basement 2, Ground level, MLCP levels, floors are made up of structural steel using high grade (450 for Columns and Beams) structural steel beams with self-supported deck slabs.
  • All three basements have single level car parks and utility services.

Mahimtura Consultants Pvt. Ltd (MCPL) was appointed as a principal structural design consultant entrusted upon with structural consultancy for the complete structural designing of ‘Phoenix Aquila’. The scope of work includes structural analysis, concept and final design, preparation of tender documents for structural works, issue of construction drawings and site supervision as & when required.

 

A conventional slab beam system, though slightly economical compared to a building in steel, there would have been beam / drop panel projection visible in different zones, resulting in reduced clear floor height below the beams, thereby reducing the intrinsic value of the office space. A conventional construction system in RCC, would have taken enormous time to come out of huge basement. But there was substantial construction time saving. Further, this enabled installation of finishes and services in the basements simultaneously, as the superstructure was progressing upward, thereby saving enormous time & cost.

Shailesh R. Mahimtura, Managing Director, Mahimtura Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

&

Hiten R. Mahimtura, Director, Mahimtura Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

 

Highlights
The Project comprises of 2 Towers – Block ‘A’ & Block ‘B’. Both the buildings exhibit completely different behavior. Block A contains a central core with a reasonably symmetrical layout. Block B has three cores distributed across the periphery of the building, depicting an asymmetrical layout. The Two Towers are linked with each other at all three basements and ground level. There exists a cantilever on the perimeters of both buildings spanning three and half meters each and to reduce heavy moments in the beam column connection, a truss was designed with a depth of full floor height.

In order to expedite the construction, “Hollow Filled Columns” (HFC’s) were introduced to reduce the total column shuttering required. The use of self-compacting concrete for the columns in order to overcome concrete segregation, since the height of the columns is 4.05 m. An international design methodology was implemented through a vendor to take advantage of the high-grade concrete infill in the columns. Through, this methodology the thickness of the fire-resistant coating was reduced which in turn lowered the total cost of fire protection. Concrete-pour windows at regular intervals was done in the columns to avoid segregation.

The slab has large spans of 11.30 X 11.30 mts and relatively large column-free spaces was attained despite such large spans. This simultaneously, maintained the head room by providing reasonably shallower beams taking advantage of:

  • Composite action
  • Thoughtful placement of the primary & secondary beams.

The software used for designing and detailing were ETABS, SAFE, RAM and AutoCAD
Structural Uniqueness

Composite Deck Slab System
Self-supporting deck slabs are proposed in basements, MLCP and Office Floors to reduce self-weight of the structure and to achieve speedy construction / faster slab cycle.

Provision to pass services through the Steel Beam
Necessary cutout for running electrical conduits & sprinkler piping system were planned within the web of the I section beams. Flexibility in Air Conditioning ducting routing was achieved by reducing the beam depth, using the composite action in design. As a result, AC ducts could pass underneath the beams & still succeed in achieving desired flexibility. Even after doing this, the head room was not compromised. With conventions slab beam construction system clear height in the office would have reduced hampering the aesthetic and low ceiling height.

Earthquake resistance and fire resistance requirements
The structural design is prepared by designing the RCC core walls (lift walls and staircase area) for earthquake resistance. The balance composite columns are designed only for gravity load path therefore their joint connections remain simple. The columns and beams are coated with cement based vermiculate / intumescent paint to achieve fire protections as per codal norms.

Provision of Sports Arena at Terrace Floor
The entire terrace floor was designed as sports arena acting like a feature for the occupants / end users as a facility. The extra live load, impact load & landscape load have been considered in the design of the terrace slab and tried to maintain similar sections I sections as per the typical floor even though the superimposed loads are heavy in order to achieve, the desired / targeted headroom without changing the floor height.

Large Span cantilever Canopies (Span of 7.5m) provided without tension rod
Large span cantilever canopy with span 7.5 m was designed without any column or any back-tie rods. This was achieved by taking the advantage of cantilever truss brackets around the periphery of the structure. The hanger columns were taken from these truss brackets and were utilized to reduce the cantilever canopy span.

 

Fact File

Developer: Phoenix Tech Zone Pvt Ltd
Architect: RSP
Structure Consultant: Mahimtura Consultants Pvt Ltd
Contractor for Main Civil works: Shapoorji Pallonji Construction Ltd.
Contractor for Structural Steel work: JSSL
Steel Tonnage: 10,500MT