Steel Marvels

The Mehsana Urban Cooperative Bank, Gujarat

The intention was to have a dignified corporate banking and sort of the landmark of area. The architects had designed head office building 25 years ago. As they were aware of their approach and design capability, they had provided the team detailed requirements of all departments, general staff and other amenities like auditorium, trading areas and a luxurious lounge for the corporate clients.

Design Concept
The designing concept was done with basic rules of simplicity, neat and clean structure, and a beautiful form to provide a dignified environment, impact, and smooth working condition. Keeping exposed concrete for exterior façade of structural and non-structural members. Providing aluminum screen wall on the front and rear side of the building to reduce heat and omit glare by the way of using daylight and keeping privacy from the roadside area to the building activities.

A suitable character of elevation appropriate to the bank building, a solid façade with a strong feeling of bank security and a specially designed entrance porch is a key feature of the building.

The Mehsana Urban Cooperative Bank at Mehsana in Gujarat sets the right example of how architecture plays a major role in upholding the gravitas of a public building and creating a conducive workplace. We have considered energy saving one of the crucial guiding factors of this design. The design intended to create maximum comfort to the user. The building was designed considering the environmental factors such as green architecture & energy conservation which we use in all our projects. In this project we have used screen wall system to use maximum daylight, minimize the heat and omit glare. This will help to reduce the inside temperature during the summers and help to minimize air-conditioning load. Also, this will give privacy to the building activities from the roadside area. The space is planned considering the comfort level of the person working inside the building.

M M Patel
Principal Architect, MMP Architects

Steel Used & Software incorporated
Steel was used as one of the major building materials in the RCC construction work, MS Box section for aluminum screen facade and suspended porch with glazing covering. The project features massing façade of exposed concrete with beautiful custom design screen wall and entrance porch.

It is a simple square footprint divided into modular system as per requirements of the project activities in basic layout and all other interior elements are in the same square modular pattern such as false ceiling, work area, partitions, etc.

AutoCAD, Revit, 3DS max, Sketchup and photoshop were the software used to make the project a success.

Experience
The architects were happy to have this project in their portfolio and were proud to associated with the old client after 25 years. They enjoyed working with a great satisfaction for the architectural values and providing beautiful functional activities to the corporate bank building for the people those who are working and coming to this building.

The construction of the project was completed within one and half year, it took 60 days for designing and preparation of documents with co-consultants.

AIIMS, Bilaspur

AIIMS Bilaspur is being constructed at Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, part of Govt. of India project to provide medical facility to every Indian. Bilaspur is being part of Punjab Himalayas and is situated at satluj valley. The proposed site is situated in earthquake zone-v in the foothills with level difference of 100m from one end to another end. The whole campus is being built on slope, providing a challenge to the engineers and builders. The Ayush Block, hospital blocks and academic blocks built in composite steel demonstrate the capacity of steel structure in hilly areas without compromising on architecture content.

The whole campus being built on slope, provides a challenge to the Engineers and builders. The Ayush block, hospital blocks and academic blocks built in composite steel demonstrate the capability of steel structure in hilly areas without compromising of architecture intent.

R K Duggal
Associate Director, TPC Technical Projects Consultants Pvt Ltd

Structural Details:
The foundations and structure up to plinth is made in concrete to protect of steel against the harmful effects of soil on steel. Foundation is isolated forting/strips/combined foundation resting on firm ground. The plinth beams are in concrete. From plinth level composite column starts and goes up to top. Universal columns sections have been chosen for columns, which have been encased in concrete with nominal reinforcement.

Universal beams sections have been chosen for beams and same has been painted with fireproof paint with 2-hour fire rating. The beams to column joints have been considered as rigid joint and beam to beam connection have been taken as shear connection.

Profile metal deck sheet TR60, 0.9mm thick MS galvanized with 350 grades have been used with nominal reinforcement and concrete topping of 75mm. The metal deck sheet is resting on main beam with shear studs @300 mm spacing. Metal deck sheet of 1.5-hour fireproof rating has been used.

Lift and staircase lobby has been constructed in concrete and shear walls required to resist the lateral earthquake force and wind loads have been mostly placed in lifts and staircase leaving the entire area open. Concrete of grade M40 has been used in column and shear wall and M30 in slabs.

The building has been designed for vertical dead and imposed loads and lateral forces due to earthquake and winds. The area lies in Zone V of earthquake zone and same has been considered with importance factor of 1.5 considered for hospital and academic block. The building has also been checked for pure steel building with two storeys. The columns being encased with concrete after two storeys of steel building.

As the building lies in Zone-V of earthquake zone, ductile detailing is being done in concrete and steel. For steel building the connection between beams and columns has been designed for 1.2 * mp of beam section as per IS:1800. The structure has also been checked for stability with multiple load combination.

Fact File
Client: All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Architect: Design Associate
Structural Consultant: TPC Technical Projects Consultants Pvt Ltd
Steel Fabricator: Jindal Steel & Power Limited
Steel Tonnage: 6000MT(Approx.)
Status: Under Construction

O. P. Jindal Global University, Sonepat

This special section covers the out-of-the-box design having steel as an essential element of the design. The main aim of this section is to showcase how steel can be innovatively used in today’s world of architecture.

Here Ar. Stephane Paumier, Design Head, SPA Design unveil their out-of-the-box design concept that ought to turn the tables in the future…

The campus for the O.P. Jindal Global University is planned away from the city of Sonepat. As a Greenfield project with no built surroundings, the design is based on a very rigorous geometrical framework of “traces regulators” of squares and golden rectangles, dear to European architecture as well as Indian classical architecture.

Design Specifics
The project is designed like a vast classical garden where the nature has been tamed by the rule of geometry as the metaphor for the men pacified by the rule of law. The center of the campus is occupied by the academic block conceived like a floating line made of squares of 60X60m, for a mega building of 240mX60m. The entire building is lifted on pilots to offer a continuous shaded park below the structures. The program is a combination of flexible spaces like classrooms, seminar rooms and faculty offices and pre-determined spaces like auditoria, library reception and kitchen.

Steeling Edifice
The structure of the project exposes the nature of the program as well as the structural possibilities and the architectural freedom offered by large span steel structures. The structural system is based on a combination of cores made of cast in situ concrete that house the staircases, lifts, and shafts in between the cores are the flying mega-trusses, that carry 3 floors of flexible workspace. The large span steel trusses are exposed as the facade and are entirely flexible inside as no columns are hampering the open spaces. The heroic character of the trusses is reinforced by the red paint that signal the project on the horizon of the plains of Haryana, like a piece of land-art in the green fields.

Architect’s Interpretation

The large span steel trusses exposed as the facade and are entirely flexible inside as no columns are hampering the open spaces. The heroic character of the trusses is reinforced by the red paint that signal the project on the horizon of the plains of Haryana, like a piece of land-art in the green fields.

Stephane Paumier
Design Head, SPA Design

The permanent elements are made in RCC like large auditoria, reception, library, and cafeterias sit in the middle of the courtyards, making them public spaces in true sense. Galleries and staircases are placed externally to reveal the dynamism of constant movements of the students behind the colored screen-printed glass panes, reminiscence of the Indian jalis.

The faculty housing is a line of “immeubles villas”, dear to Le Corbusier, forming the visual boundary of the campus. All the buildings come together around a network of gardens and parks, reintroducing the lost landscape of agricultural fields and vegetable gardens into the university. The other major consideration was the very short time of 18 months given for study and construction of the academic block. Therefore, the methodology of construction became the key to a successful planning. These deadlines were achieved by pre-fabrication of large structural steel elements while the casting of in-situ RCC cores was happening. The site was turned into a well-managed open-air factory with reinforcement yards and steel trusses fabrication yards all around the building.

By the time, the RCC cores were ready, the trusses as large as 60 M X 13 M could be lifted and bolted in place with heavy duty mobile cranes. All the joints between trusses and columns are bolted connections to minimize welding at heights and minimize time wastage.

The technology of steel prefabrication was then followed in using a composite floor system made of TATA deck sheeting for all the floor plates to avoid formwork and accelerate construction activity. Metal deck sheeting thus forms a part of structural floor arrangement to reduce conventional reinforcement in tension zones. It was made possible to cast 4 floors at the same time, without any scaffolding. More than 2500 workers were employed round the clock by the contractor at peak time and it took only 60 days to assemble the structure after the RCC cores were erected.

The O.P. Jindal University academic block is an attempt to demonstrate that if responsibly design, a steel building can be sustainable. Here are the points that need to be considered:

  • For large span structures required in academia for large rooms, a steel structure seems to offer a much higher performance in use and weight of material. This building assembled like a large “mecano” is structurally pure and was very fast to assemble, avoiding months of dust and water wastage common in most RCC building, as well as constant nuisance for the students when the campus is already open.

The self-weight was being minimized drastically compared to a conventional building. All facades are high efficiency ceramic fritted double glazing, the partitions are made of light weight gypsum board with little embodied energy, the total weight of the building on the ground, therefore the foundation design, is minimal. The large span also permitted a full continuity of a shaded landscape below the pilots, offering coolness to the open spaces. The conception minimized air-conditioning to rooms only, leaving all circulations and staircases naturally ventilated. All the material used in the building are clearly identifiable and can be dismantled and recycled easily.

Fact File
Client: O.P Jindal Global University
Architects: SPA Design, New Delhi
Structural Consultants: EDRC Larsen & Toubro, CE Con Structure
Contractors: BL Kashyap, Jindal Realty Pvt Ltd
Picture Credits: Amit Pasricha, Edmund Sumner, Sanjeet Wahi, Spa Design Office

Café Infinity, Greater Noida

This special section covers the out-of-the-box design having steel as an essential element of the design. The main aim of this section is to showcase how steel can be innovatively used in today’s world of architecture.

Here Ar. Rahul Jain, Principal Architect, Rahul Jain Design Lab unveil their out-of-the-box design concept that ought to turn the tables in the future…

Cafe Infinity located at ITS Dental College, Greater Noida is designed to be used as a recreational space for students, faculty, and patients alike. The vision was to design a sustainable structure that goes beyond the conventional and pushes the boundaries of design and build form.

Recycled shipping container, being a sustainable product, was a perfect fit due to its modularity as well as economic feasibility as compared to the conventional RCC structure.

Architect’s Interpretation

As an Architect, I want my designs to reflect the ethos of sustainable innovation – creating new uses and aesthetics in synergy with the environment. We strive to create impactful projects with aesthetic integrity and an enduring design character. Through a continuous exploration of holistic function and essential components, we implement a transparent, thoughtful, and rigorous design process that promotes excellence and sustainability. We believe that this constantly evolving world comes with its unique set of problems as well as opportunities, the humanity is at a decisive point in its relationship with the natural world and therefore the solution must be driven by a vision of creating awareness for ecologically responsible environments.

Rahul Jain
Principal Architect, Rahul Jain Design Lab

Design brief
The cafe is designed to stand out due to its form factor, and in terms of its positioning, breaking the rigidity of the existing site layout. Focusing on the outer structure and containers’ industrial form factor the interior is kept neutral.

The design idea centers around two courtyards which comprises of two cafe outlets in the front, two dynamic staircases acting as seating and providing access to the viewing decks, services(toilets) at the central container, seating areas for faculty and visitors and a lounge area for students.

The seating is focused around the courtyard and provides an ideal viewpoint of the inner courtyards and the outer landscape, which is often utilized for sporting events as well as other activities of the institute.

The organic landscape layout complements the rigid geometry of the containers and provides fluidity to the site circulation.

Large glazing of staircases merges the rigid build form with the landscape. The landscape complements the industrial nature of the architecture, but also promotes activity, and consequently, vibrancy to the entirety of the site.

Structural Specifications
The building is formed with the use of recycled shipping containers (40 feet) that were crafted with the careful consideration to preserve its raw and industrial form. The structure, services and functionality are designed with a focus on sustainability. Passive cooling and insulation is provided with the use of 50 MM Rockwool insulation, gypsum paneling, fiber cement board for rooftop flooring, tinted windows, mechanical cooling, strategic placement of windows and openings to make the building perfectly adequate in the extreme weather conditions of the site. Louvers made of reused shipping container doors located in the south direction minimize the heat gain as well as give privacy from the public hospital adjacent to it while providing the view of the stadium.

The idea of using infinity was conceived to emphasize on the infinite possibilities of using a shipping container as a structural unit, regardless of the building type and site. The façade due to the form factor exhibit playfulness in terms of material, movement and geometry when viewed from different sides. The flexibility, modularity and sustainability make shipping containers a perfect alternate to the conventional building structures (RCC), to reduce the overall Carbon footprint while also being an ecologically and economically viable solution.

4 World Trade Center New York

Intended to
The goal of the 72-story, 2.3 million-square-foot tower’s design was two-fold: to construct a powerful and efficient structure that would emanate a quietly dignified presence, and to enrich and enliven the surrounding urban environment.

4WTC meets these demands through significant yet restrained structural innovation, recognized by the 2017 AISC IDEAS2 Presidential Award of Excellence in Engineering.

Structural Specification
A typical office building of this size and shape would contain 7 to 10 perimeter columns on each side, spaced at roughly 20- to 30-foot intervals. 4WTC, on the other hand, has only four. The columns are grouped in pairs with an 80-foot clear span between them and 20 to 45-foot cantilevers at each end, providing dramatic column-free corners.

Beneath 4WTC lies a precarious maze of subway lines, commuter circulation, and mechanical spaces. The below grade complexity affected the retail column placements. A massive split V column supports the retail entrance, with additional steel structure built around the elevator and escalators, acting together to meet demanding load path requirements.

 

Structural steel was key in overcoming the unique challenges faced during the design of 4 WTC. LERA worked closely with the design architect, Maki & Associates, to come up with innovative structural solutions to speed construction, decrease construction costs, and create the desired open spaces for the offices. The limited number of perimeter columns created expansive city views through four 80-ft-long clear spans, six column-free building corners, and cantilevers of 20 to 45 ft. These long cantilevers and clear spans would typically add extra cost and time to the construction of the project. However, LERA designed the steel spandrel girders to pass continuously through the composite columns at the perimeter, splicing the spandrel members only at locations of low internal forces. This innovative approach saved time and money by removing 75% of the moment connections and reducing the total number of steel pieces/crane picks per floor.

NAYAN TRIVEDI
Partner, LERA Consulting Structural Engineers

Steeled Efficiency
An innovative construction sequence was implemented for the construction of the tower: a structural steel frame was erected first, followed by an encapsulation of the service core in reinforced concrete. Typically, for steel-concrete buildings outside of New York City, the concrete core is constructed first with embed plates and followed by steel floor framing.

In the typical construction of perimeter steel columns, the steel beams and columns are aligned. For the long spans and cantilever conditions at 4WTC, however, the standard method would have required a significant moment connection at every column. To overcome this, the spandrel beam was offset from the columns, allowing the beam to be continuous and bypass the column uninterrupted. This drastically reduced the number of moment connections required to support 80-foot clear spans. Splice locations were then chosen at points of low moment along the length of the spandrel beams, thus simplifying the connections and providing additional savings in cost and time.

The advantage of this approach was threefold: on each side, it reduced the number of moment connections from eight (one at each face of the four columns) to two; it reduced the required number of spandrel pieces from five to three, resulting in more efficient shipping and fewer crane picks; and it reduced the size of the remaining moment connections since they were designed for much smaller forces than would have been required at the face of the columns.

The steel frame also led to efficiency in the link beams embedded in the core. Link beams, which connect two very stiff vertical elements, such as elevator cores, are highly stressed elements. When done in concrete, they are very congested with reinforcement, which can also lead to problems with concrete consolidation in construction.

In 4WTC, the link beams are made from steel built-up shapes. Steel is much better at resisting shear forces than concrete, and the steel link beams were much smaller than comparable concrete beams would have been. The steel link beams were also erected with space left between the top of the beam and the floor above, allowing ductwork and other utilities to be run above the tenant-finished ceiling.

Another significant technique to reduce construction time was in placing the erection columns to which these link beams were connected within the elevator core wall but offsetting them from the end of the wall by 6 feet.

This meant that the steel-link-beam-to-steel-erection-column connection could be a simple, cost effective shear tab instead of the highly stressed, expensive moment connection that would have been necessary had the erection column been placed at the end of the wall. The shear forces from the link beam were directed into the concrete by composite action between the end of the wall and the erection column. This approach simplified the connections, resulting in further savings in time and cost.

Sustainable Edifice
Awarded a LEED-certified Gold rating by the United States Green Building Council, sustainability was at the heart of 4WTC’s design. Recycled and sustainable building materials were used throughout and rolled steel members were incorporated into the concrete-encapsulated core. Additionally, the use of steel floor framing allowed for lighter floors within the core, thus reducing the overall weight and volume of concrete materials.

All the structural steel innovations present in 4WTC were made possible using cutting-edge computational design software in the planning and optimization of the project.

Prior to the initiation of construction for 4WTC, the design team worked with a steel detailer to create a 3-D Tekla model of steel components of the building. Developed as a quantities survey and early coordination model, this model proved crucial to the success of the bidding process. The design team also performed structural steel connection design for all non-typical connections, including all moment, truss node and beam-to-perimeter column connections.

 

FACT FILE

Client: Silverstein Properties
Architect: Maki & Associates, Adamson Associates
Structural Consultant: LERA Consulting Structural Engineers
Status: Completed

Owara Restaurant, Nashik

Owara located in the Chandsi area of Nashik, is a stand-alone restaurant which automatically makes the design brief inclusive of the exteriors starting with the entranceway.

The otherwise regular concrete and brickwork construction makes use of an unusually sloped roofline and angularly placed M.S. columns supporting the canopies of the outdoor seating to create an impermanent bamboo tent like impression, akin to a tribal structure.

Coupled with all the Warli painting that adorns the compound wall as well as the entrance gateway, the structure doesn’t just stand out against the regular built scape of the city, but also emphatically announces its tribal Warli theme through all the modern metaphor of steel and glazing.

It has four seating categories, like Garden Seating, Main Plinth seating, Kopchi (a hide out for college students) and a mini banquet. This restaurant has 6 types of kitchen.

 

 

The combination of a prominent built form, uncommon roof scape, steel and glazing and brilliant lighting are sure to make “Ówara” stand out in the Nashik skyline and enjoy local popularity. The eatery scores on double ends by successfully showcasing a tribal theme without compromising on any contemporary technological contribution towards its comfort and ambiance.
Dhananjay Pawar
Managing Director, Synectics Architects

Insight
An interesting alternation between modern or contemporary design elements and tribal insignia has been used in Owara to balance modern catering requirements with a tribal theme.

As the mannequins of a Warli couple and a centrally placed Tulsi planter welcome a visitor at the entrance, he or she then passes over a glass bridge framed in M.S. sections, placed over a fish pond visible through it, to enter and be lead to the various dining areas of the restaurant. Pausing at this bridge, gazing at the fishpond beneath, one can decide which area to dine at and proceed towards it.

The bridge also leads to the main entrance in the indoors through a double height teak wood door with bamboo handles entering through which one can find himself in the indoor dining area spanning almost the entire building length.

This large dining space is abutted by an open kitchen at one end and by a staircase leading upstairs to the banquet hall doubling up as a discotheque at the other end. Located right opposite the main entrance is a doorway leading to an inner dining area, a secluded one preferred by youngsters and couples, aptly named ‘Kopchi”.

The structure has an interesting elevation from all sides. A traditional stone wall at one end which relates to a contemporary block cladded with Shera Planks. It has different moods in the day as well as in the nighttime. In the night times it glows with a very different mood than in day and not a single drop of water is wasted from the property as it is getting recycled.

VMRDA Children’s Arena, Visakhapatnam

The Children Arena is an auditorium which is owned by VMRDA (Visakhapatnam Metropolitan Region Development Authority). This auditorium is meant for children which is multi- functional with a seating capacity of 1000.

Ideation
The idea of children arena started with the following:
“Every child, when starts writing first there appears directionless and confusing lines. Then, the first form he writes is the circle… may be representing the philosophical, natural and celestial link with life. The first form recoginsed by and always held close to them clearly is the circle aesthetic, functional and psychological attributes of the form “ circle” are exploited and taken advantage of .. To form the central concept of vuda’s “children arena”

Structural Specifications
This structure is located in the heart of vibrant city of Visakhapatnam. The floor space was well designed with all the circulation with multiple entries and exit routes. The structure contains a grand foyer with front elevation circular in shape for height of 16m. The main auditorium width is 21m with passages of 4.1m on either side. The main building elevation is circular in shape with two level variations to enhance the aesthetics.

The consultants, we were asked to design entire envelope as per the Architects intent. The main structure has been designed as a plain lattice of depth 1.35m which starts from plinth level on both sides and making a beautiful curvature at the roof and it is seamless. The max overall width of the structure is 38.5m and the height at the peak is 18m. There are multiple lattices which are placed at a distance of 5.7m and the total length of building is 57m. The lattices were fixed at 6 locations thereby we could make each lattice into 5 segments for the ease of fabrication and erection. For some portion of length the architect has given height difference in the same profile. To address this problem, double lattices were provided at these location without hampering the idea of architect.

Facing Challenges
The main challenge in this project was front elevation. During the erection of lattices, inspection of lattices was done at site and there was a discussion about the front elevation. VUDA engineers did not want to dig anything in the front to support the elevation lattices, as they have finished the RCC Structure which they have laid foundation 20 feet below the floor level. They wanted to avoid any kind of excavation. Understanding their problem the consultants started thinking affresh, and came up with a solution. They re-analysed the RCC Structure for staircase on either side of the building for lateral loads due to wind, and luckily the structure found to be taking lateral loads and also the foundation was safe for the intended loads.

Then the front elevation was designed by providing horizontal lattices which were supported onto RCC structure on either side and the vertical lattices were supported on these horizontal lattices. All the lattices in this area are triangular in shape to take care of the vertical bending due to self weight and glass weight and horizontal bending due to wind load. Ultimately a world class auditorium was designed which was appreciated by one and all.

Kartarpur Corridor, Punjab

On the eve of 550th anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, a messenger of god, missionary and reformist who preached oneness, harmony and unity, Shri Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India and Prime Minister of Pakistan unanimously took an initiative to open up a corridor so that pilgrims from both the countries could visit various shrines of Guru Nanak at Kartarpur.

Ideation
The work on this corridor would be a landmark in the history of these two countries and shall be a helpful resource in creating unity and both the nations can look beyond physical boundaries and collectively work for the economic growth for this part of the sub- continent.

The very vision of the state-of-the-art Landport, a terminal building at Dera Baba Nanak is being carried out by Landport Authority of India. The objective was to construct a world class, State of the Art infrastructure for ICP Passenger Terminal Building at Dera Baba Nanak, to help the Sikh pilgrims from India to visit Dera baba Nanak at Kartarpur located about 7kms from the International boundary.

The project brief was aimed at providing comprehensive architectural services for the terminal building which will house adequate immigration and customs clearance facilities to process the smooth movement of nearly 10,000 pilgrims per day. The Terminal Building and associated land development was to cater to the utilities and amenities like toilets, waiting areas, security hold areas, adequate number of Immigration counters, drop offs & pickup areas, parking areas, allied facilities like safety, security, barrier free environment, retail & concessionaires etc. Our endeavour was to design a building that will always be looked upon a global facility which is Green, Smart and Sustainably relevant to the topography, culture, heritage and social fabric of the state it belongs to.

This was a step towards spreading universal message and the teachings of great Guru Nanak in terms of creating peace, harmony, unity amongst particularly between the two nations. This dream project is visualised as a physical homage to the great Guru Nanak Dev ji and also to create the sensitivity of Art & Architecture in symbolizing the universal message of oneness and humanity through various elements of visuals, dimensions, space and volume, particularly in creating State of the Art& Architecture thus establishing an environment which is spiritually empowered, emotionally bonded and solely connected which justifies the statement of Prof. Charanjit Singh Shah that : “A Building should not be treated as a mass of brick and concrete but as a living organism which breathes and embodies within the nature.”

 

This project showcases engineering capability of developing India wherein we are able to conceive and build a design of such magnitude and complexity in a record time. It is also an initiative to create a zero ground for both the countries and provide access to historical shrines of Guru Nanak for Sikh pilgrims.

Gurpreet Shah
Principal Architect, Creative Group

 

Using Steel
The flexibility of steel was utilized to create a large open span structure with limited columns. Surreal form of the building was realized by the malleable nature of steel, making it possible to construct the exact computer engineered design. Integration of steel frames, use of tubular sections and I-sections, reflective metal panelling, and façade glass has enabled to achieve large wide-open spaces with natural light in abundance.

Concrete and wet construction was kept to a minimum to save time. Steel fabrication was propagated wherein fabrication could take place in a yard and quick assembly can be achieved at site with not only guaranteed precision but also enabled an unheard timeline for the project.

Features
The building form originates from Khanda, of Sikhism symbolizing unity, peace, and sending out a universal message of global brotherhood and coexistence. Disabled – friendly building will have immigration and clearance facilities to process movement of 10000-15000 pilgrims a day and provide a visa free access. The gateway crowning the port with the composition of 5 petals symbolizes the 5 vows of Sikhism.

The frame of the building is entirely constructed out of steel, with the use of trusses and various steel sections to achieve large open spans. The cladding on the roof is of aluminium standing seam while some areas also use zinc cladding and double-glazed glass units used in the façade enable natural lighting within the building while use of aluminium composite panels reflect the contemporary aspirations of the project.

The Wall of Fame will be showing the journey of Guru Nanak Devi ji since his birth, episodes of his understanding, his realizations and his journey towards enlightenment. His various Udasi’s or travel covering more than 40,500km across the globe where he preached the message of truthfulness, brotherhood and oneness of God, while criticizing and protesting against the rituality and fanaticism of religion is depicted in the form of Modern Art. The artwork also depicts certain other profound figures in Sikh history. The Guru’s philosophy of Mool Mantra’s essence is felt by the kinetic art which is unique in the world and is seen as sending the message of peace across the world.

Geometrics and Software used
It has been designed in a manner that it can efficiently respond to the future growth of the passengers in a logical manner to ensure that the increasing passenger movement can be dealt in a manner without negatively impacting the existing process. The passenger movement has been planned in a linear manner by providing a centralized position for immigration, customs and security check posts by minimizing confusion. The simple layout is designed to ease the passenger movement and function as an efficient transit point. This complements the otherwise dynamic form of building which has a spiritual inspiration behind it.

After the conceptualisation of the project and basic decisions regarding the planning, architectural software like AutoCAD and modelling software like Google Sketchup were used for generating drawings and 3- D for the project.

Learnings
This was a very challenging project with such magnitude and of international importance, which had to be created with a signature design. It was a major challenge to design and tender this project within 2-3 weeks and construct a project with a site area of 50 acres, 3000 tons of steel and execute within 4-5 months.

The project had to be completed in six months. Both Creative Group and Shapoorji Pallonji worked Day and Night along to finish the project on time. The project was inaugurated on 9th November 2019, in lieu with Guru Nanak’s 550th Birth Anniversary.

 

Fact File

Client: Land Port Authority of India
Architects: Creative Group
Contractors: Shapoorji Pallonji
Steel Supplier: TATA Steel & APL Apollo Tubes Ltd
Steel Tonnage: 3000 tons

Thyagaraj Sports Complex, Delhi

The air-conditioned Multipurpose Indoor Stadium for Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games has a seating capacity of 5000 seats. The complex has been awarded the Indian Building Congress (IBC) Award for ‘Excellence in Built Environment’ in the sports complex.

Initial Thought
The project was envisioned to have long span column free spaces, additional seating capacity, future expandability, sustainable construction, low maintenance costs, amenities, enhancements for patron comfort, security and aesthetics.

It was supposed to be a precinct for sporting and entertainment events to be one of the greenest sporting arenas in the world, by using high performance glazing for thermal control, water conservation strategies, renewable energy and waste management.

The Thyagaraj Sports Complex for us was an opportunity to pave the way for Sustainable buildings in India. We were focussed and driven in our approach towards Green Construction despite of little awareness and lack of resources at the time of conception of the Complex. A multidisciplinary team of experts worked together to overcome practical challenges in designing efficient structural systems, Solar and gas-based energy systems and innovative plumbing solutions. A green building becomes sustainable only when it goes beyond the built form, transcending to touch the social and economic aspects of the place. Our intent while designing this complex was to make a positive contribution to the community and we feel that we succeeded in many ways. The multifunctional design, accessibility, parking provisions have enabled hosting of a plethora of events even after the Commonwealth Games. Also, the building has its own power plant which can contribute to energy needs of the local community long after the games have ended.
Rakesh Kapoor, Principal Architect, Rakesh Kapoor & Associates

Architectural Features
It is India’s first IGBC Gold certified stadium while the complex has been awarded the Indian Building Congress (IBC) Award for ‘Excellence in Built Environment’.

Thyagaraj Sports Complex was also selected for the CIDC Vishwakarma Awards 2011 and was adjudged as the ‘Best Infrastructure Project’.

The stadium constitutes of one show court and two warms up and practice courts side by side for Net Ball games, originally intended for Commonwealth Games.

With a seating capacity of 5000 (Permanent, Retractable and Temporary), these courts are at ground level and viewing balconies are on all four sides, which extend for two floor heights sloping with steps. The galleries inside the stadium are provided with steel structural system in the steps to support imported seats.

A basement is provided for car parking and housing other service facilities. Fire escapes are provided with exits away from the building through underground tunnels. The building doubles as an indoor and outdoor venue, with large cantilevered roofs serving as a shelter to an outer concourse for the indoor venue. It provides shade in the extreme heat and shelter in the rain. It also serves as a canopy for the grandstand to the outdoor venue.

The initial proposal was for providing steel trusses with intermediate supports through steel ropes supported on high steel masts with a tensile structure concept. Since the stadium falls in the landing alignment of nearby Safdarjung Airport, the Civil Aviation Authority did not give clearance for such high masts. Therefore, the roofing system had to be modified to flat roof with slight slope towards one side for rainwater drainage.

Green Features
The building features solar and gas-based power generating systems through to rainwater harvesting and an effluent treatment plant, all of which are controlled by an Integrated Building Management System. The external façade of the stadium building is with frameless structural glazing, double panelled with air gap to conserve the temperature inside for efficient air-conditioning.

Geometrics
The multi-disciplinary games stadium spans an area of 25.55 hectares with a seating capacity of 5,000. The overall size of the stadium at the ground floor is about 72.50 x 155 meters and over the play court, the column free span is about 62.20 meters in width.

The overall roof covered area worked out to 107 x 179 meters. The trusses provided are of trapezoidal shape of size 1.30×2.60×3.60 m (height) in cross section with steel hollow tubular sections.

The total length of each truss worked out to 107 meters. In totality there are 19 trusses at 8.6 meter spacing along the length of the stadium. Roof projections of 15 meter, each are provided on the East and West sides and 12 meter each on North and South sides.

Steel Used
By using structural steel framing, large clear spaces can be easily accomplished with beam framing, plate girders or trusses. Minimizing the number of columns and walls and providing larger clear spaces making it easier to customize the space for activities.

Structural steel framing also makes expansion easy by providing elements to which connections are easily made by welding or bolting, and which can be easily reinforced to accommodate additional loading. Steel’s long spans, with reduced column interruption, also provides for maximum flexibility in planning an expansion.

Learnings
Such projects are a dream of every designer, contractor and was an ultimate experience. The project being one of its kind, posed not only design challenges but was also a construction magnum opus. The erection of a 100 MT truss having around 107-meter length in a single piece was never done before in India, and probably was done on only one or two instances in the world.

The trusses were fabricated in the workshop situated about 300 km away from work site. To enable easy handling and transport, each truss was fabricated in 5 segments. With a legacy of many technologies introduced in India for stadiums through this project, it will continue to be a precinct for sporting and entertainment events.

Touted as the pride of Delhi, it took nearly three years for the Public Works Department to construct this multi-disciplinary game stadium.

ITO – Skywalk, New Delhi

New Delhi is a complex grid of urbanism, and requires a revolutionary approach that holds potential applications catering to the huge urban density of the city ITO – Skywalk project in New Delhi is designed with the aim of touching lines of the complex grid of urbanism. Applying lateral thinking and expertise, ITO skywalk manifests itself as a tool to address the issues of identity in urban infrastructure and mobility of New Delhi.

Initial Idea
The proposal of a newly minted ITO Skywalk, a foot over-bridge in New Delhi aimed at connecting Sikandra Road, Mathura Road, Tilak Marg, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg and Pragati Maidan, ITO Metro stations and Supreme Court through a skywalk that will cater to the traffic problems of the ITO and W point junctions, one of the busiest mobile cross junctions of the city.

Being Delhi’s longest skywalk, this integrates numerous nodes in one of the busiest stretches of the metropolis that sees office goers commute to various corporate and government buildings in the vicinity or precisely more than 30,000 pedestrians daily in the absence of free-flowing pedestrian walkways . The project defies the solidity of the surroundings and is conceived as a serpentine tube, coiling around major intersections. The program called for a unified response to the area’s burgeoning commuter concerns, especially at the ITO Crossing and the ‘W’ Point Junction, which sees maximum pedestrian traffic throughout the day. The idea of a mounted element acquiring least space on the ground level was conceived as solution to the haphazard movement of the people using the railway tracks to cross Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. The skywalk ideation not just fulfils its utilitarian purpose of serving as a medium of mobility, but also to establish itself as a landmark within the city.


The year 2018 marked our perpetual presence in the transformation of India’s constantly growing infrastructural sector. We had completed 23 years in the industry when ITO skywalk was inaugurated in the same year, with some of our other key infrastructural and master-planning projects across the nation like Delhi High Court and Dakshineshwar skywalk in Kolkata. ITO skywalk came as a precious opportunity for DFI and provided a momentum to our constant efforts of Nation building. Skywalk for us was more than a solution to Delhi’s traffic-clogged roads. We wanted skywalk to be comprehended like an artistic flash derived from the doodles of a child prodigy which we achieved through the series of circumvented tensile fabric roofing and steel structure. The sky bridge acquires more beauty during the night hours, like a blade of light running as a walking utopia – with no cars, no busses and no stress.
Goonmeet Singh Chauhan, Partner, Design Forum International

Design Specification/Intent
Running as a steel flash, the design paradigm of ITO-skywalk network has transformed the dramatic traffic experience into an altruistic and artistic car free walking affair for pedestrians accompanied with a strong structure. The skywalk was imagined as an industrial sculpture that would be able to push forward the future vision of transportation in Delhi.

Steel the Solution
Construction is one of the topmost steel-using industries, accounting for more than 50 per cent of the world steel production. Steel is a solution to infrastructure for cities like Delhi for its properties of enabling protective wind-resistant designs. Steel is the new vernacular and affordable, readily available and safer. On the other hand, its intrinsic properties, such as strength, versatility, durability and 100 percent recyclability allows for improved environmental performance across the entire life cycle of structures.

Architectural Features
ITO Skywalk’s reticulated profile boasts of state-of-the-art facilities; its instantly recognizable silhouette features structural, crisscross boot lace trusses that are covered with tensile fabrics. The structure incorporates steel members, with all junctions (except Supreme Court and Railway Colony Junction) being constructed in RCC and clad in red Agra stone in adherence to the context.

The Supreme Court and Railway Colony junctions are conceived in the form of octagonal units with steel crowns, featuring red granite finished flooring and S.S. glass railings. The tensile fabric roofing is an ingenious intervention, fulfilling both functional and aesthetic requirements. Concepts unique to the design are glass lifts at every junction displaying sensitivity to the needs of women and differently abled; as well as public Wi-Fi and surveillance systems for additional safety.

Emphasis has been laid on the tensile fabric roofing and steel structure, highlighting their form through strategic installation of lighting fixtures, while making them vandal-proof. The under deck has also been lit-up with LEDs that provide a sense of height for the stream of vehicles passing below. Landscape and lighting have been thoughtfully integrated with the design, as patches of green coalesce with a combination of functional and facade lighting, rendering the over-bridge to be aesthetically appealing, yet economical.

Learnings
The ITO Skywalk has been an endeavor to impinge positively upon the existing character of the neighborhood that it serves, aiding hundreds of thousands of citizens daily. By creating a physical configuration towards the mobility infrastructural network to providing commuters with a connectivity of a sustainable alternative network, a better reach is enabled amongst the cross junctions in the busy ITO neighborhood of the dense metropolis city of New Delhi.

Solutions such as the Skywalk not just modes of commutes, or to generate ephemeral experiences through spaces, but more so as contributions to the architecture, public infrastructure and the urban context in which they thrive.