Steel Marvels

Terminal 1, Bangalore International Airport


Kempegowda International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Bangalore, Karnataka, located at Devanahalli, about 30 km from Bangalore City Railway Station and covers about 4,700 acres. The airport opened in May 2008 as Bengaluru International Airport, replacing the HAL Airport as the city’s main commercial airport. It was renamed in 2013 after Kempe Gowda, the founder of Bangalore.

Kempegowda Airport is being expanded in two phases. The new airport was originally planned to accommodate 6.5 million passengers a year, but, this was later redesigned to handle 12 million passengers per year. The redesign resulted in an increase in the size of the terminal, number of aircraft stands, new taxiway layouts and supporting infrastructure.

The Phase 1 was completed in December 2013. The passenger terminal was expanded to a size of 150,556m, with check-in, immigration, security, and baggage reclaim facilities all expanded. In addition, Terminal 1A was constructed as an extension to the original terminal. This terminal added 3 international gates, one of which is capable of handling the Airbus A380. Overall, Phase 1 has raised Kempegowda Airport’s passenger capacity to 20 million per year.

Design Concept The existing airport at Bangalore was extended on 3 sides, on the west side by 176m x 100m, on the east side by 176m x 100.64 m and on the south side by 217m x 42m. Each extension has a wavy and complex 3D surface, supported on very tall tree columns. The roof trusses were designed to be straight elements with changes in angle at the ends to follow the shape of the roof. The change in angle was effected using specially developed connectors called as quad nodes. These nodes helped in ensuring that the connections were standardized and modular.

This design decision increased reliability of the geometry, helped in streamlining the fabrication activities and ensured accuracy of the structural form after erection.  The tree columns of this project were long and unique and required a high degree of finish and precision. The structure was completely bolted with no welding at site, to ensure accuracy and quality of assembly at site. Special jigs and fixtures were developed to reliably fabricate the various trusses which had no repetition. One of the key requirements in a complex project is the reliability of the drawings generated from the design. In-house software developed helped to generate the geometry automatically, and to design and detail the connections.

This software was also developed to handle the automated generation of shop drawings, bill of quantities, painting areas etc.  Challenges Faced in Execution During the analyses of the roof structure and the existing RC building, it was found that the RC building could not be loaded with any horizontal forces from the new steel roof. To overcome this, a special ‘double knuckle’ joint was developed by Geodesic to ensure no horizontal forces were transmitted to the old RC structure from the new steel roof.

The greatest challenge faced was in executing the project, handling the constraints in material handling and movements, etc. without disturbing the functioning of the existing airport. Also, the civil work handing over of work-fronts was not keeping pace or sequence with the steel roof.  So, the challenge was to alter the fabrication sequence frequently based on the civil work completion.    Safety Measures Adopted An elaborate HSE manual encompassing all safety aspects of the project was developed, implemented and practiced.

Safety Induction Pep talks / tool box meetings every day before starting the work Use of relevant PPEs made compulsory for each and every person working in the project Work permits were always taken for high risk works like hot work permit, heavy lifting permit, permit for working at heights, etc. Ensured third party certification for all equipments, tools and tackles Ensured fire prevention programme followed as described in the safety manual Conducted awareness training programme to one and all to ensure emergency preparedness  Ensured adherence to certain important aspects of safety such as electrical safety, ladder safety, etc.

Steel Sections:
Seamless Pipes (NB50, NB 65, Nb80), Built-up I Sections, ISMB Sections, UB/UC Sections, Plates, ERW Pipes for Purlins

BMW Welt, Germany


With the launch of BMW Welt, the German car manufacturer has elevated buying a car from mere transaction to ritualistic experience. This landmark building, situated on a highly visible site between Munich’s Olympic Park and the BMW headquarters, is designed to embrace visitors entirely into the world of BMW. Buyers can not only meet their new cars as they rotate on turntables, but also immerse themselves in visions of future mobility. There’s a junior campus educating children and young people on autos and an event forum for diverse happenings and excitement. Visitors are served by a series of restaurants and shops. BMW expects to deliver 45,000 cars and to receive 800,000 visitors each year.

Form and Function
The architectural design speaks volumes about BMW’s values. The dominating feature is a ‘double cone’ glass and steel structure that supports a cloud-like roof. Here, perforated stainless steel panels act as both – aesthetic and functional elements, providing the desired impressions as well as sun protection. Stainless steel is also the dominating façade material on the upper sections of the building, and it is used in indoor cladding as well. The contracting company Josef Gartner GmbH of Germany selected Outokumpu as the stainless steel supplier based on long-term good relations and Outokumpu’s long experience with architecture.

Trusted Partner
Outokumpu’s supply for BMW Welt comprised approximately 500 tons of stainless coil and sheet. The material for the external sections was austenitic EN 1.4404 (ASTM 316L), with the milder grade EN 1.4301 (ASTM 304) chosen for indoor cladding. All material was delivered with a 2B surface finish, shot blasted prior to fabrication by Josef Gartner.

A project manager from the company commented that they were absolutely satisfied with Outokumpu’s performance and Outokumpu met their expectations. They received the material in the right condition, and at the right place and time.

Eden Gardens Stadium, Kolkata


Client Brief
In 2011 India hosted the Cricket World Cup. But prior to this, many of the existing cricket stadiums lacked facilities and required renovations, repairs, and upgrades, and Eden Gardens was one of such stadiums. Famous for its large and vociferous crowd, it is said that a cricketer’s cricketing education is incomplete until he plays in front of a capacity crowd at Eden Gardens.

It is India’s biggest cricket stadium, a premier venue in the world of cricket and home to the IPL’s Kolkata Knight Riders. The client, Cricket Association of Bengal, identified a need for extensive reconstruction to meet the changing needs of the game, and prepare for the 2011 World Cup where it was to host four matches.

The goal of the client was to re-establish Eden Garden’s status as an elite competitive facility. The prime objective was master planning entire campus and re-development of entire facility in phased manner to meet the changing nature of the game and offer a world class facility. Following were some of the major points/brief given that was to be addressed – improve spectator experience, improve player experience and facilities, improvement for administration/office bearers, unification of aesthetics, and modernization. Based on this brief, the project team developed the design. In addition to being an iconic structure that was to host the Cricket World Cup in 2011, the stadium also had to meet the pragmatic needs of the regular season and special events as well. The redevelopment additionally had to ensure that Eden Gardens retained its legendary atmosphere.

Initial Thought Process
The initial thought process included extensive research, meeting with stakeholders, benchmarking studies, etc. in order to establish standards and objectives. The team also carried out a detailed study of existing facility in order to identify various issues related to the design and overall functioning of the stadium. Later, a discovery session including all the stakeholders was conducted to establish an overall vision for the master-plan.

Steel Usage
Steel was used to create a new eye-catching façade and long span roof. The long span roof structure is having curved length of 130m, radial width of 35m and depth varies from 2m to 4m. The cantilever projection towards ground is 19m which provides an obstruction-less view of the ground to the spectators. This helps re-establish the stadium as a world-class venue and inspires a sense of pride in athletes, staff and the city beyond.

Architectural Features
Due to addition and expansion in phased manner and sections, the stadium premises lacked uniformity/aesthetic homogeneity as a whole. In order to create a uniform character, the long span roof was introduced which acts as a binding element. This along with the iconic façade gives a unique identity and re-establishes the stadium as a premier venue in the world of cricket. The design of the new stadium is both functionally and architecturally significant.

The stadium’s unique feature includes its two-way curvilinear roof and the tubular sections that are not merely an aesthetic feature, but, also structurally supports the lateral movement of the roof. Care was taken for the vertical supports for the roof so as to minimize the obstruction for spectators. Also, it was further streamlined for the wind movement.

The tubular sections are arranged in a diagonal fashion to help spread structural loads, whereas architecturally they generate a three-dimensional dynamic pattern. This arrangement fulfils another function aside from supporting the structure above. It acts as a beacon in the night sky. These back lit tubular members increase the dramatic effect by adding depth and contrast to the façade creating an iconic statement.

Structural Geometrics
Modular systems where used in the roof and façade in form of truss and other elements. This helped create an efficient structural system and allowed for ease of construction. The roof is curved in plan. The top cord and bottom cord of roof section are also curved. The crescents at front and rear side of roof, called as bull-nose, enhance aesthetic significance of the structure and also very efficiently handle the wind forces. The structural geometry follows the form of skin to have maximum depth and optimum consumption of steel. The roof structure is designed using conventional hot rolled angle and channel sections.

Due to curvatures of a skin, it is essential to cover the top with specialized standing seam metal sheets which are formed at site with required dimensions and curvature in two planes – as per the geometrical requirement of the roof. Any lap in the roofing sheet along the span of the roof is not provided – making each sheet approximately 35 m. long. The bottom of the roof structure is covered with aluminum false ceiling.

The software used for designing and detailing included – AutoCAD, Revit, 3D Max, Sketchup and other structural software. Due to the approaching World Cup, the challenge was to create a world-class facility on a fast track schedule and tight budget that would create a sense of pride for the players. The team dealt with various issues and the overall experience of the project was rewarding, as was the experience of watching Eden Gardens host the World Cup 2011 matches. The project started in 2009 and was completed in 2011.

The Team
Stantec was responsible for the master-plan, vision and concept design along with landscape design, while VMS handled the design integration and project monitoring and control, structural design, plumbing design, site infrastructure and procurement management. Antech Consultants was concerned with electrical work, while Studio I worked on lighting design. Associate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) design work was carried out by Mihir N. Patel.

Vadodara Integrated Terminal, Gujarat


“Architecture is for eternity…” and this phrase holds true for New Vadodara Integrated Terminal. The Vadodara Integrated Terminal is an epitome of aesthetics with an arresting sight. An engineering marvel, the terminal is an icon in itself, a first-of-its-kind and holds a strong identity.

Apart from being an iconic and sleek contemporary structure, Vadodara Airport is the Greenest Airport ever proposed in India, designed by M/s Creative Group which is led by Prof. Charanjit Shah. The terminal was an International Architectural Design Competition organized by AAI among many other hopefuls.

Planned To Perfection
Great airports have the ability to create a sense of excitement, anticipation and spirit of flight, even from a distance. Approaching the new terminal from Vadodara, passengers could see the terminal’s iconic aerodynamic volume levitating above the landscape. Incoming vehicles follow the internal roadway loop surrounded by green trees. Passengers arrive at the curb protected by a large overhang that is punctuated with clear circular openings to provide natural light and induce natural ventilation.

The organization of the terminal is straightforward and efficient. The basis of planning is sequential with all terminal functions supported by clear way finding. Although there is a provision of definite division between airside and landside spaces, the terminal is connected visually around a central zone. Passenger and baggage circulation is organized so that departing and arriving passengers as well as domestic and international passengers do not mingle at any point on the airside of the building.

Structural Glorification
The New Integrated Terminal features an arching, sweeping roof that spans the entire length of the terminal; Inspired by the body and wings of airplanes, the building’s bold sweeping form and identity is achieved by wrapping the East and West sides and the roof with one continuous aerodynamic metal skin. Careful analysis of the building’s orientation informs its design and unique form. A large overhang on the North (landside) shelters the transparent facade while shading and protecting passengers along the curbside.

This profile creates an overhang on the South (airside) so that the panoramic glass curtain wall is completely shaded from the strong sun. The volumetric proportion of the interior spaces combined with filtered natural light from skylights above and the sound of flowing water will activate and enliven the experience inside the terminal. The structure is an amalgamation and intelligent use of materials and technology. Within the space defined by the arching roof, support columns are arranged so that public spaces remain column-free at all terminal levels. The curtain wall forms the facade on two sides and is supported on the vertical and horizontal members. The west & East façade has hollow blocks to protect hot sun. Elements of green architecture are being adopted and most of the ECBC code application is carried out. Green pavers, solar street lights, traffic markers are being used.

Greening With Prowess
The Architects have worked in a global association with Gensler and Frederic Schwartz Architects and have projected the New Terminal at Vadodara as the Greenest Airport in India. Carefully assessing the material palette and adherence of ECBC codes ensures energy conservation. STP and rainwater harvesting programme being adopted for water conservation. Bricks have been replaced by AAC blocks (Aerated Autoclaved Concrete Blocks), which ensures thermal insulation. Besides insulating capability, one of AAC’s advantages in construction is its quick and easy installation.

AAC’s high resource efficiency gives it low environmental impact in all phases of its life cycle, from processing of raw materials to the disposal of AAC waste. AAC’s excellent thermal efficiency makes a major contribution to environmental protection by sharply reducing the need for space heating and cooling in buildings. The parking zone is devoid of any hard surface which has 95 per cent of water run-off and no percolation. Use of Green pavers with over 90 per cent porosity ensures ground water recharge. With water table dropping every year and is cause of immense concern.

The ECBC code application involves adaptation of active and passive strategies like use of occupancy sensors & timers, CFL & T5 fixtures, automatic shutoff system, electronic ballasts and variable drives. Superior daylight achieved throughout the building by optimizing design reduces dependence upon artificial lighting. The designing has been evolved on simple fact ‘minimize the heat gain and maximizing day lighting’. The stepped pool acts as a natural and physical separation between the visitor area and the check-in zone while creating a memorable experience for passengers, its reflectivity offering a psychological respite and calming of the soul for travelers.

Roofing Extolment
With its sleek curved roof, the building’s steel structure rises to form a light and open, column-free terminal with expansive glass curtain walls that create a feeling of spaciousness. Skylights follow the geometry of the roof allowing natural light to permeate the terminal. The roof structure creates column-free public spaces for both, the public concourses and the hold room areas. The structural design and repetition of the basic module result in maximum efficiency for engineering, fabrication and construction considerations.

To the East and West, the roof-supporting trusses rest on shear walls. The large forces generated at the base of these elements are transferred directly to the foundations. Departures level floors are constructed using both, post-tensioned and conventionally reinforced concrete. To insure maximum structural efficiency and to limit the overall depth of the structural envelope, girders are post-tensioned. The beams and slabs framing into these girders are designed using conventional reinforced concrete construction methods.

Prof. Shah has integrated services in underground trenches, catering to various services like fire fighting, HVAC, plumbing, BMS etc. which would not only be functional, but, effective at the same time. Along with Architect Gurpreet Shah, design team developed and conceptualized terminal’s aerodynamic form and its integration with natural and artificial lighting. Architecture is a visual art, and buildings speak for themselves. This green iconic building adds to the heritage of Vadodara and brings pride to the cultural city and is a piece of art which will stay for eternity.

Metro Station at Chennai Airport


The architects of the admirable Chennai Airport, a structure that boasts of many ‘firsts’ in architectural engineering in India, have done it once again with the Chennai Metro which is located inside the airport area. The metro has been successfully innovated as an aesthetic extension to the airport wherein the engineering defines its architectural vocabulary.

With the addition of the Chennai Metro, the new Airport Terminals of Chennai are one of the first Airports in India which can claim seamlessly connectivity through various transportation systems viz. air travel, national highway, suburban railways and metro rail making it a unique Multi Modal Transportation Complex.

Plying Connectivity
The metro station at Chennai Airport is a unique station having large importance, not only in terms of providing connectivity, but, also in terms of comprehending the already created unique architectural marvels – new Domestic and International Airport Terminals. It is connected to the terminals via a glass and steel tube consisting of walkalators, another first for a metro station in India.

Shrewd Planning
Creative Group planned the overhead metro station right in front to the National Highway with its axis lying on the axis of the whole complex, with the New Domestic and International Terminals being layout at an equal distance from it, thus, providing an easy access to both of them. The central location of the station makes it all the more important that it supplements the prominent architectural vocabulary already visible at the complex, yet, not compromising on its own identity.

The building has to be subtle, yet, dynamic in form justifying its central location in the site, not overpowering the airport terminals. The building is, thus, designed with portal frames which are being inspired from the now famous V-columns of the airport, adheres to the vocabulary of the complete campus, and fulfils the desire of having its own unique features.

The station’s form showcases the interconnection of both the terminals not only on the physical plane, but, on the conceptual plane as well. This built form has been achieved by constantly increasing the size of the arched double portals, thus, making the building to expand both, in elevation and plan. The flow of the passengers from both the terminals is showcased by building’s form consisting of two identical tubes ascending towards the central axis from both the sides and penetrating inside the biggest central tube. The largest central tube has been made with four identical central portals, making a big vault like structure at the centre. This large tube like structure is perpendicularly connected by a large subdued vaulted roof form which houses the commercial and concourse areas.

Adhering Vocabulary
The building structure has been designed with arched double steel portals. The arched double portals consist of two identical arches tilted at equal angle along their axis and are interconnected at five points, thus, forming a stable double portal structure. These double portals are then again tilted at an angle along its axis to achieve the ascending roof form of the side tubes. The double portal arrangement forms the ‘V’ shape in elevations, thus, adhering to the overall vocabulary of the campus.

The building thus formed, is highly dynamic and vibrant, representing an organism generated through the geometry of the structural elements and following the philosophy of having the structure and the architecture as one. The built form has helped in achieving a station which is both, aesthetically and functionally, beyond the realms of the contemporary architecture of the metro stations.

Structural Bifurcation
The building consists of 5 levels – having 2-wheeler parking for the daily commuters in the basement level, commercial office area at ground level, passenger entrance and commercial areas at metro ground level, passenger concourse and connection with the airport terminals at metro concourse level, and platform and commercial areas at the platform level.

The building connects with the Airport Terminals through a glass tube. This specially designed glass tube is supported by two ‘V’ columns, resembling the geometry of the double ‘V’ columns of the departure flyover. This connector tube directly connects the metro station with the Airport Terminals. The building has been made highly accessible with all levels being connected with escalators and elevators. The pedestrian ramp has been provided till the lifts at the ground levels and ADA tiles are used throughout the designated path of the circulation for making it ADA compliant.

Sound Geometrics
The complete enclosure is covered with a double skin stand-up seam aluminium roofing system to achieve the complex curvilinear shape of the roof form. These steel portals are made up of built-up box section of MS plates which is bended in the arched profile of the roof. The steel portals are connected with the connecting purlins and connectors, thus, structurally tying the portals.

The metro shall cater to an average ridership of 2,373 boarding passengers and 840 alighting passengers – totalling to 1.2 million passengers per year, thus, providing the much required connectivity to the Airport Terminals with the city. This station shall be the last of Washermanpet line to airport/mount line.

Current Status
The civil and structural works of the station are completed and hence it is expected to be operational by early 2016. Next time when you land in Chennai, this vibrant intermodal station shall be providing you with a seamless movement connectivity experience. This fully functional Intermodal Transportation hub shall be a unique example of high efficiency and aesthetics.

K SQUARE, the Integrated Park Project, Bhiwandi


India has witnessed significant strides in e-commerce business in last few years. The logistics chains and warehousing facilities across the country are a backbone to support this e-retail and e-commerce revolution. World-class retailers derive their efficiencies from their warehousing and logistics capabilities that are very critical to their business. Hence, the demand for strategically located land parcels and warehousing oriented construction services is very high. The strategic business objectives of these large multinational organizations are serving as catalyst in transformation from conventional structures to engineered steel building solutions.

Prakhhyat Infraprojects Pvt. Ltd. was formed by six visionaries in 2007 to provide state-of-the-art infrastructure with world-class facilities. Prakhhyat endeavors to create, develop and deliver large scale property, facilities and infrastructure that encourage private investment, create employment, diversify and stabilize local economy and aid in creating a sustainable environment. Today, Prakhhyat is already a forerunner in industrial infrastructure with most converted project K Square, The Integrated Park Project already and several other projects in offing.

K Square, The Integrated Park Project
Prakhhyat’s pioneering and flagship ‘K Square, The Integrated Park Project’ was conceived to offer state-of-the-art, next generation logistics and industrial townships in an organized manner. K Square, Integrated Park Project is one of the largest integrated parks spread over 170 acres with a built-up area of more than 74 lakh sq. ft. Its layout includes space for every entity in value chain of industry’s manufacturing and logistics needs.

The total area of K Square, The Integrated Park Project is divided into K Logix, K Industry, K Commerce and K Residency. K Logix has a 40 lakh sq. ft. PEB built-to-suit warehousing complex is designed, manufactured and supplied by Tata BlueScope Building Solutions. The many-tiered sub projects and options offer flexibility to suit every scale of operation for any industry. K Square, The Integrated Park Project is a self-contained facility that minimizes logistic costs throughout supply chain and production cycle time by co-locating a number of suppliers in one low-cost location.

Strategic Partnership
Prakhhyat Infraprojects and Tata BlueScope Building Solutions came together to build integrated logistics infrastructure in Bhiwandi on Mumbai-Nasik Highway. To develop this magnanimous infrastructure, Prakhhyat’s first choice for strategic partner was Tata BlueScope Building Solutions due to its strong credentials of delivering engineered steel building solutions. Prakhhyat’s management team was well aware of the advantages of involving steel building supplier in early stages of the project; such as ensuring effective design, smooth project co-ordination, faster project completion and meeting operational requirements of occupants. Tata BlueScope Building Solutions designed, manufactured and supplied engineered steel building solutions for K-Logix Project.

Detailed Specifications
The primary frame members were designed as per AISC-1989; the design loads were as per MBMA-96; the seismic loads were as per IS 1893: 2002; and the cold formed members were designed as per AISI -1996. Single side welding was considered for all primary members, by welding as per American Welding Society (AWS) and Structural Welding Code – Steel.

Sequential delivery of materials to follow building erection priorities
On site roll forming of KLIP-LOK® 700 roofing system, with single sheet length of up to 85.0m

Project Planning
A dedicated Project Manager was a single point of contact throughout the project to ensure proper coordination with external and internal stakeholders. Project progress reviews on daily and weekly basis were arranged to ensure proper coordination with all stakeholders
Specific materials laydown area was required for particular modules, to enable easy identification
Tata BlueScope Building Solutions offered expert advice to customer for resources consideration and deployment at site by builder with an aim to achieve a desired outcome
To support the customer, daily monitoring and controlling of execution sequence was provided.

Milestones and Performance
Prakhhyat Infraprojects had released repeat orders for 6 buildings with total area of 1,05,752 sq. mt., out of which four buildings of 73,417 sq. mt. are completed. The Warehouse 4 – having an area of 24,461 sq. mt.; and Warehouse 6 having an area 7874 sq. mt.; are currently under construction.

The fully engineered solutions, superior quality and on-time delivery of materials are hallmarks of this project. The present occupants of K Logix are DHL, Amazon and Iron Mountain.

Auditorium in Andhra Pradesh


The Auditorium building is located on the hillock area and the roof profile is matching the geological profile surroundings of the site. The proposed steel structure is spread over an area of about 3139 sq. m. The building consists of ground floor covered with structural steel space frame members. The roofing system is curved and covered with galvalume sheeting and has insulation for thermal gradient. This entire roofing system rests on RCC column/footings.

Structural Design
The steel girders are spaced over the RCC columns at a varying interval from 4.5m to 6.0m on the periphery. The main girder cross section is triangular in shape varying from 750 x 1800mm at center to 750 x 900mm at ends, spanning 28m between columns. The triangular girder continues along the same slope and is anchored to the ground on a pedestal. The entire structural analysis of the 3D space frame has been carried out using STAAD Pro software. The structural members of the girders, purlins, and bracings are all tubular sections of YST 310 grade (CHS/RHS/SHS).

Steel Advantage
The large span, roof profile, construction timing and overall economy determine the necessity to adopt and propose structural steel system and roofing. There is also added advantage for addition and alteration space for future requirements considering its flexibility of the material. Hence the specific space frame and tubular configuration.

Efficiency in Fabrication
The hollow sections by inherent nature are stable for torsion and by formulation of triangular cross section of the girder and the curved nature of the roof profile, makes it extremely rigid for strength, stability or serviceability. The structural design, by virtue of material (RHS/SHS/CHS) coupled with geometry and shape of the roofing system is extremely economical. The structural steel consist of NB Pipes/SHS/RHS sections used are to the tune of 96 MT for an area of 34500 sq. ft. in plan. The galvalume sheet roofing laid for an area of 3200 sq. m is fixed with self-tapping screws. The sheet profile has been adequately achieved to the architectural requirement

Precise Workmanship
The choice of the material for roofing was steel due the span and curved profile. The entire fabrication can be done on-site. The bending of the tubular section to the required shape was a challenge that was adequately met at the site. The profiling is derived with help of a hydraulic bending machine. The structural steel system was required in the curved profile, hence there was no choice other than using hollow section and is the right choice. Full penetration butt welding or fillet welding were done as per the design requirement. The space truss were made into two halves and erected with the help of a heavy-duty crane. These halves were joined together with full welding all-round. The truss, it displayed excellent stability during erection, thanks to its three dimensional design.

During inspection, the contractor derived shop marking, and the same got approved in record time. Precision was a pre-requisite on account of the girders bearing a curved profile. The fabrication and erection of the roofing system was required to be precise both due to three dimensional nature and curved form. The erection of the entire roofing was done with the help of a crane, thereby achieving proper alignment of girders and purlins.

Facility Management
The space frame remains visible for stipulated scheduled visual inspection as a part of routine facility management compulsions and can be treated and maintained by applying appropriate system without the necessity of erecting scaffolding from the floor. Simple employment of gondolas etc. permit the quick maintenance and upkeep of the structural system. A schedule towards assessment of corrosion and weathering impact can also be aligned towards the upkeep of the facility

The structural system is configured and engineered as per good engineering practice as stipulated in required codal provision. Appropriate QA – QC measures were deployed during the stages of fabrication, erection, inspection and commissioning of the system in line with the defined design basis.



‘Time is Money’ is a very old saying, but, for Mumbai it is now a necessity, compulsion and reality.

Any RCC framed structure – small, medium or large – needs a specific time cycle, however efficient be the construction management on site. Therefore, when an option of alternative methodology and materials are now accessible and affordable, then why not steel? Structural steel has tremendous potential for flexibility in planning as well as expressing ‘structural aesthetics’.

The project – SMRITI 57 – is located in Juhu scheme in western suburbs of Mumbai on a small plot of 470 sq. mtrs. amidst a fully developed neighborhood. Thus, the challenge was to quickly execute the basic shell having extremely scarce marginal open spaces with least disturbance to neighbors.

The basic structural components of six floors of 10 mtr x 16 mtr spans of beams, columns and slabs consists of just four columns of 450 dia made out of 19 mm MS plates welded helically, braced with 600 mm deep ‘I’ beams fabricated from MS plates and readily available galvanized deck slabs by JSW duly stud welded. The entire structure may be imagined as a ‘chest’ with four legs and six shelves. After basic conceptualization of the structure, individual floor plans are drawn up as per end users requirements, which not only gave flexibility in planning, but, spellbound spatial feel. The complexity of internal walls and partitions, configuration of windows and voids, need for safe and secured spaces, private and open areas, and so on are all set within an orderly structural grid.

The erection of 450 dia columns above pile caps are 12 metre in length (which is the length of a trailer truck) and ‘I’ beams placed at a specific grid are fabricated by PLC at their factory in Daman and transported through trailer trucks. The entire erection process of over 900 sq. mtrs. in six levels executed within 14 weeks. It is worth a mention about the hydra and crane operators that they are exceptionally skilled in maneuvering their machines in extremely congested spaces with many impediments including trees and narrow accesses.
All the steel structural components are welded and finished with high quality epoxy primers and PU paints. They are intentionally kept exposed and blended with plastered masonry, aluminum windows, steel railings perched within the lush green foliage of peltophorum trees. Even many elements of interiors such as staircases, beds and tables, storage units, pipe shafts, etc. are made out of steel which further accentuates the use of steel in the project. There is always a concern for junctions in such type of composite structures such as between ‘I’ beam and masonry where ‘I’ beams are overlapped with concrete coping which totally overlaps the web of these beams.

For the requirement of internal stairs or double height ceilings, cutouts are simply created by not fixing deck slabs. Also the lateral beam at 3rd floor level is pushed back to create absolute double height for the terrace in plan as well as in section. Another feature in this building is that all the six mid-landings of the main stairs are cantilevered out to the bays of 3.5 x 1.6 mtrs. These are the spaces to accommodate store rooms, washing machine, and maid/staff rooms. Each of these are also attached with toilet bay of 1.6 x 1.8 mtrs. at every mid-landing.

Steel, as a prime structural material, is presumed to be expensive over conventional RCC structures. True, the numbers in the construction of these structures are on higher side by about 10 per cent, but, the end product compensates the costs by virtue of saving in time and strength despite its slenderness and organized work ethics. This project is a humble experiment in using steel as a structural material for residential typologies and promises to go a long way.


ARCHITECT NITIN KILLAWALA, Principal, Group Seven Architects & Planners Pvt Ltd
I was always fascinated with steel as a material, although I never got the opportunity to design a steel building for any of my clients, I thought of designing my own house with steel that will last for many years, and at the same time, provide structural aesthetics to the building. Today, not all clients take the risk of making a steel building, unless they have some proven records and examples to analyze the advantages. Normally, in a conventional project, floor by floor is constructed, but here, because it is a steel building, three floors are constructed together. The more we start building such structures, the more ideas and techniques we will develop

SHABBIR DALAL, GM – Designs, Shanghvi & Associates Consultants Pvt. Ltd.
For floors  we could have  chosen  traditional  type insitu concrete slabs but due to  reduced  time required to  fix shuttering, cutting & fixing of steel rebars  and cast each floor it was decided to adopt metal decking slab as it will avoid labour required to prepare , no propping  fix formwork and by using factory made readily available   welded wire mesh  time requiring for fixing steel bars was avoided which has reduced the period required to finish the floor. Above all   lesser waiting time for setting of concrete, no props had given contractor more flexibility to carry out other activities.

Architect : Group Seven Architects & Planners Pvt. Ltd.
Structural Consultant : Shanghvi & Associates Consultants Pvt. Ltd.
Structural Steelwork : PSL Ltd. & JSW Structural Metal Decking Ltd.


The concept of Luxury Hotel based service apartments arrived in India a decade ago, and while Surat has become more integrated with the global economy, executives from all over the world travel to business hubs and spend weeks or months working from different locations. Surat, which is 4th fastest growing city of the world, is blessed with immense talent in diversified fields is a manufacturing hub for Textiles, Diamonds, Jewelry, Fabric, Pharmaceuticals, Agricultural Products and also now Real Estate. The visitors in Surat basically require a living space where they can stay for longer duration compared to a hotel. Staying at hotels for such long periods is costly, where The World – Luxury Hotel Apartments will offer an alternative. It is designed in such a way where a person can enjoy the pleasure of home and services of a hotel. Moreover it is reflective Hindva’s respect for Surat’s incredible history and futuristic developments, combined with their own aesthetic.

Creative Minds On Board
Collaboration with an iconic, creative as well as well-experienced supportive firms is the growing trend today. Hindva has always teamed up with the best talent when it sees a dream to turn into reality. Since the launch of Palazzo, Hindva is associated with the principle designer ZZ Architects, multiple award-winner architectural firm who designed the appearance of The World. Besides, Hindva promisingly works with Aayojan Architects in all its projects, who contributes vital part of association at construction and clearance at local governance. With an ancient aim to cultivate the project that designates the diverse quality of its own, and looking at the essential magnitudes and developments in Surat, ADDA Architects & Urban Design has teamed up with Hindva in 2013. Hindva has always followed the footsteps and guidelines of Er. Jalil A. Sheikh, known as city’s most respected structural engineer. Hindva had asked all its architects and consultants to use method of an advance architecture, structural engineering, interior and landscape with droplet of spectacle rudiments in designing of The World.

The Groundwork
‘The World’ is a luxury hotel based service apartments located in the heart of the ever evolving city of Surat. ZZ Architects had to conceptualize the design of The World to reflect the spirit and heart of the emerging city. Designed with a host of unique architectural and interior elements, the aim was to give the visitors an experience to remember each time they visit the place. The emphasis was on designing an iconic structure combining functionality and aesthetics.

The team at ZZ Architects aims to assure that at the planning stage itself the designs are made technically sound. Services are integrated along with the design of the building. Imbued with thoughtful planning and unique design vocabulary, the project had to be designed to reinvent the experience of having a home away from home. There was a clear mandate that the team wished to create a timeless space, something that would grow on the patrons as they frequent the place. Comfort and quality were always the key words.

Selecting Steel
Steel has been used because of its inherent properties of durability, strength and resilience. Steel panels facilitate the creation of double skin facade offering better thermal performance of the building. Steel was used for cladding of the external columns as well. Instead of the typical linear buildings, The World has been conceptualized in curved form where steel again proved to be a metal of choice thanks to its inherent property of flexibility. The use of steel has also facilitated the creation of the large skylight covering the grand atrium of the building, which is also a focal point of the building. The atrium had to be a large open space to accommodate vast array of functions and aesthetic elements, making steel an appropriate choice.

The World is being constructed with drywall system supplied by Gyproc – a Saint Gobain Company. Around 60 per cent of drywall material contains high quality galvanised steel and due to its implementation, the design and weight of building structural becomes light as compared to the traditional building construction method, and also it doubles up the strength of the building’s durable life.

Architectural USP
Design of The World is developed with the emphasis on volumetric massing creating a virtue of grandeur on the inside and outside. The design creates an envelope by accommodating a central atrium space which spans for eleven floors covered with a massive skylight that depicts the sky. The entry to the hotel happens through a grand canopy which is designed to create a pleasant vista. The canopy also accommodates a water cascade which divides the vehicular movement. The landscaping plays an integral part in the design. Once complete, The World will house a theatre, state of the art gymnasium, salons and spas, fine dining restaurants, a golf zone, clubhouse, and a jogging track in addition to 300 suite apartments of different capacities.

Geometrics and Challenges
The design of The World has been derived from two concentric arcs joined at the ends thereby forming a huge ellipse. The void at the center forms the main entrance of the building with all activities planned along the periphery of the elliptical void. The geometry ensures that large areas within the building benefit from natural light and illumination. The main challenge was to maintain the quality of spatial planning by using appropriate materials and placing different activities at apt locations and to make a cohesive structure.

Structural Perspective
The large layout of The World encompasses areas for entertainment and interaction that cater to a variety of activities and conveniences. The enormous facade has been detailed using two different tones of glass to break the monotony and to give a distinct appeal to the entire structure. Each elevational treatment responds to its specific context whilst also addressing the development of the project as a whole by using consistent palette of materials and architectural components. Structure system is designed keeping in mind the double height spaces and long spans especially on the ground floor. The structure does not obstruct spaces and look grandeur while connecting the outside landscape to interior spaces.